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The range of the mange: Spatiotemporal patterns of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as revealed by camera trapping.

Abstract Sarcoptic mange is a widely distributed disease that affects numerous mammalian species. We used camera traps to investigate the apparent prevalence and spatiotemporal dynamics of sarcoptic mange in a red fox population in southeastern Norway. We monitored red foxes for five years using 305 camera traps distributed across an 18000 km2 area. A total of 6581 fox events were examined to visually identify mange compatible lesions. We investigated factors associated with the occurrence of mange by using logistic models within a Bayesian framework, whereas the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease were analysed with space-time scan statistics. The apparent prevalence of the disease fluctuated over the study period with a mean of 3.15% and credible interval [1.25, 6.37], and our best logistic model explaining the presence of red foxes with mange-compatible lesions included time since the beginning of the study and the interaction between distance to settlement and season as explanatory variables. The scan analyses detected several potential clusters of the disease that varied in persistence and size, and the locations in the cluster with the highest probability were closer to human settlements than the other survey locations. Our results indicate that red foxes in an advanced stage of the disease are most likely found closer to human settlements during periods of low wild prey availability (winter). We discuss different potential causes. Furthermore, the disease appears to follow a pattern of small localized outbreaks rather than sporadic isolated events.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28423011
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170419
DCOM- 20170425
LR  - 20170425
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 4
DP  - 2017
TI  - The range of the mange: Spatiotemporal patterns of sarcoptic mange in red foxes
      (Vulpes vulpes) as revealed by camera trapping.
PG  - e0176200
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0176200 [doi]
AB  - Sarcoptic mange is a widely distributed disease that affects numerous mammalian
      species. We used camera traps to investigate the apparent prevalence and
      spatiotemporal dynamics of sarcoptic mange in a red fox population in
      southeastern Norway. We monitored red foxes for five years using 305 camera traps
      distributed across an 18000 km2 area. A total of 6581 fox events were examined to
      visually identify mange compatible lesions. We investigated factors associated
      with the occurrence of mange by using logistic models within a Bayesian
      framework, whereas the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease were analysed with 
      space-time scan statistics. The apparent prevalence of the disease fluctuated
      over the study period with a mean of 3.15% and credible interval [1.25, 6.37],
      and our best logistic model explaining the presence of red foxes with
      mange-compatible lesions included time since the beginning of the study and the
      interaction between distance to settlement and season as explanatory variables.
      The scan analyses detected several potential clusters of the disease that varied 
      in persistence and size, and the locations in the cluster with the highest
      probability were closer to human settlements than the other survey locations. Our
      results indicate that red foxes in an advanced stage of the disease are most
      likely found closer to human settlements during periods of low wild prey
      availability (winter). We discuss different potential causes. Furthermore, the
      disease appears to follow a pattern of small localized outbreaks rather than
      sporadic isolated events.
FAU - Carricondo-Sanchez, David
AU  - Carricondo-Sanchez D
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6564-9108
AD  - Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Hedmark University of
      Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway.
FAU - Odden, Morten
AU  - Odden M
AD  - Faculty of Applied Ecology and Agricultural Sciences, Hedmark University of
      Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway.
FAU - Linnell, John D C
AU  - Linnell JDC
AD  - Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
FAU - Odden, John
AU  - Odden J
AD  - Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170419
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Bayes Theorem
MH  - Foxes/*parasitology
MH  - Logistic Models
MH  - Norway/epidemiology
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - Sarcoptes scabiei/physiology
MH  - Scabies/*epidemiology/parasitology/*veterinary
MH  - Spatio-Temporal Analysis
MH  - Video Recording
EDAT- 2017/04/20 06:00
MHDA- 2017/04/26 06:00
CRDT- 2017/04/20 06:00
PHST- 2016/10/11 [received]
PHST- 2017/04/06 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0176200 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-40554 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Apr 19;12(4):e0176200. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176200.
      eCollection 2017.

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