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Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

Abstract The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites. Molecular tools were used to investigate the prevalence and diversity of two protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in Tasmanian devils. A comparison of parasite prevalence between wild and captive Tasmanian devils showed that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were significantly more prevalent in wild devils (p < 0.05); Cryptosporidium was identified in 37.9% of wild devils but only 10.7% of captive devils, while Giardia was identified in 24.1% of wild devils but only 0.82% of captive devils. Molecular analysis identified the presence of novel genotypes of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The novel Cryptosporidium genotype was 98.1% similar at the 18S rDNA to Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum) with additional samples identified as C. fayeri, C. muris, and C. galli. Two novel Giardia genotypes, TD genotype 1 and TD genotype 2, were similar to G. duodenalis from dogs (94.4%) and a Giardia assemblage A isolate from humans (86.9%). Giardia duodenalis BIV, a zoonotic genotype of Giardia, was also identified in a single captive Tasmanian devil. These findings suggest that conservation management may be altering host-parasite interactions in the Tasmanian devil, and the presence of G. duodenalis BIV in a captive devil points to possible human-devil parasite transmission.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Genome, Protozoan

Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28423030
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170419
DCOM- 20170427
LR  - 20170427
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 4
DP  - 2017
TI  - Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from the Tasmanian
      devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).
PG  - e0174994
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0174994 [doi]
AB  - The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only 
      in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered
      and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal
      transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To
      prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented
      in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if
      conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils
      and their parasites. Molecular tools were used to investigate the prevalence and 
      diversity of two protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in Tasmanian
      devils. A comparison of parasite prevalence between wild and captive Tasmanian
      devils showed that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were significantly more
      prevalent in wild devils (p &lt; 0.05); Cryptosporidium was identified in 37.9% of
      wild devils but only 10.7% of captive devils, while Giardia was identified in
      24.1% of wild devils but only 0.82% of captive devils. Molecular analysis
      identified the presence of novel genotypes of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia.
      The novel Cryptosporidium genotype was 98.1% similar at the 18S rDNA to
      Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum) with additional samples identified 
      as C. fayeri, C. muris, and C. galli. Two novel Giardia genotypes, TD genotype 1 
      and TD genotype 2, were similar to G. duodenalis from dogs (94.4%) and a Giardia 
      assemblage A isolate from humans (86.9%). Giardia duodenalis BIV, a zoonotic
      genotype of Giardia, was also identified in a single captive Tasmanian devil.
      These findings suggest that conservation management may be altering host-parasite
      interactions in the Tasmanian devil, and the presence of G. duodenalis BIV in a
      captive devil points to possible human-devil parasite transmission.
FAU - Wait, Liana F
AU  - Wait LF
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7665-9336
AD  - Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW,
      Australia.
FAU - Fox, Samantha
AU  - Fox S
AD  - Save the Tasmanian Devil Program, The Department of Primary Industries, Parks,
      Water and Environment, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
FAU - Peck, Sarah
AU  - Peck S
AD  - Save the Tasmanian Devil Program, The Department of Primary Industries, Parks,
      Water and Environment, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
FAU - Power, Michelle L
AU  - Power ML
AD  - Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW,
      Australia.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170419
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Animals, Wild
MH  - Animals, Zoo
MH  - Cryptosporidiosis/*epidemiology/parasitology/transmission
MH  - Cryptosporidium/classification/*genetics/isolation &amp; purification
MH  - Dogs
MH  - Endangered Species
MH  - *Genome, Protozoan
MH  - Genotype
MH  - Giardia lamblia/classification/*genetics/isolation &amp; purification
MH  - Giardiasis/epidemiology/parasitology/transmission/*veterinary
MH  - Host-Parasite Interactions
MH  - Humans
MH  - Marsupialia/*parasitology
MH  - Phylogeny
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - Tasmania/epidemiology
EDAT- 2017/04/20 06:00
MHDA- 2017/04/28 06:00
CRDT- 2017/04/20 06:00
PHST- 2016/11/03 [received]
PHST- 2017/03/17 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0174994 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-43790 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Apr 19;12(4):e0174994. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174994.
      eCollection 2017.

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