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Impact of body condition on influenza A virus infection dynamics in mallards following a secondary exposure.

Abstract Migratory waterfowl are often viewed as vehicles for the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs), with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) implicated as particularly important reservoir hosts. The physical demands and energetic costs of migration have been shown to influence birds' body condition; poorer body condition may suppress immune function and affect the course of IAV infection. Our study evaluated the impact of body condition on immune function and viral shedding dynamics in mallards naturally exposed to an H9 IAV, and then secondarily exposed to an H4N6 IAV. Mallards were divided into three treatment groups of 10 birds per group, with each bird's body condition manipulated as a function of body weight by restricting food availability to achieve either a -10%, -20%, or control body weight class. We found that mallards exhibit moderate heterosubtypic immunity against an H4N6 IAV infection after an infection from an H9 IAV, and that body condition did not have an impact on shedding dynamics in response to a secondary exposure. Furthermore, body condition did not affect aspects of the innate and adaptive immune system, including the acute phase protein haptoglobin, heterophil/lymphocyte ratios, and antibody production. Contrary to recently proposed hypotheses and some experimental evidence, our data do not support relationships between body condition, infection and immunocompetence following a second exposure to IAV in mallards. Consequently, while annual migration may be a driver in the maintenance and spread of IAVs, the energetic demands of migration may not affect susceptibility in mallards.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28423047
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
DA  - 20170419
LR  - 20170419
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 4
DP  - 2017
TI  - Impact of body condition on influenza A virus infection dynamics in mallards
      following a secondary exposure.
PG  - e0175757
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0175757 [doi]
AB  - Migratory waterfowl are often viewed as vehicles for the global spread of
      influenza A viruses (IAVs), with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) implicated as
      particularly important reservoir hosts. The physical demands and energetic costs 
      of migration have been shown to influence birds' body condition; poorer body
      condition may suppress immune function and affect the course of IAV infection.
      Our study evaluated the impact of body condition on immune function and viral
      shedding dynamics in mallards naturally exposed to an H9 IAV, and then
      secondarily exposed to an H4N6 IAV. Mallards were divided into three treatment
      groups of 10 birds per group, with each bird's body condition manipulated as a
      function of body weight by restricting food availability to achieve either a
      -10%, -20%, or control body weight class. We found that mallards exhibit moderate
      heterosubtypic immunity against an H4N6 IAV infection after an infection from an 
      H9 IAV, and that body condition did not have an impact on shedding dynamics in
      response to a secondary exposure. Furthermore, body condition did not affect
      aspects of the innate and adaptive immune system, including the acute phase
      protein haptoglobin, heterophil/lymphocyte ratios, and antibody production.
      Contrary to recently proposed hypotheses and some experimental evidence, our data
      do not support relationships between body condition, infection and
      immunocompetence following a second exposure to IAV in mallards. Consequently,
      while annual migration may be a driver in the maintenance and spread of IAVs, the
      energetic demands of migration may not affect susceptibility in mallards.
FAU - Dannemiller, Nicholas G
AU  - Dannemiller NG
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3429-1881
AD  - Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State
      University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
AD  - United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection
      Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins,
      Colorado, United States of America.
FAU - Webb, Colleen T
AU  - Webb CT
AD  - Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United 
      States of America.
FAU - Wilson, Kenneth R
AU  - Wilson KR
AD  - Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State
      University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
FAU - Bentler, Kevin T
AU  - Bentler KT
AD  - United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection
      Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins,
      Colorado, United States of America.
FAU - Mooers, Nicole L
AU  - Mooers NL
AD  - United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection
      Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins,
      Colorado, United States of America.
FAU - Ellis, Jeremy W
AU  - Ellis JW
AD  - United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection
      Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins,
      Colorado, United States of America.
FAU - Root, J Jeffrey
AU  - Root JJ
AD  - United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection
      Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins,
      Colorado, United States of America.
FAU - Franklin, Alan B
AU  - Franklin AB
AD  - United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection
      Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins,
      Colorado, United States of America.
FAU - Shriner, Susan A
AU  - Shriner SA
AD  - United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection
      Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins,
      Colorado, United States of America.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170419
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
EDAT- 2017/04/20 06:00
MHDA- 2017/04/20 06:00
CRDT- 2017/04/20 06:00
PHST- 2016/11/29 [received]
PHST- 2017/03/30 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0175757 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-16-47171 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Apr 19;12(4):e0175757. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175757.
      eCollection 2017.

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