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Zika Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Human Disease.

Abstract The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes. Initial reports describe sporadic mild viral infection with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis in Africa and Asia. However, its geographic distribution has significantly increased, and it has caused large outbreaks in the Yap Islands in 2007, in French Polynesia in 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Multiple cases of Guillain-Barre´ syndrome occurred in French Polynesia and Columbia during outbreaks, and infections in pregnant women in Brazil have been associated with microcephaly and fetal loss. The viremic phase in humans is short, and diagnosis usually depends on positive immunoglobulin M titers with serum neutralization tests for confirmation. Treatment is directed at symptoms; there are no antiviral drugs available. Transmission can also occur through sexual contact with infected men and through blood transfusion. Prevention is important in women and includes limiting travel to endemic areas when possible, control of mosquito populations and condom use when appropriate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is actively involved in tracking these infections and providing up-to-date information.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Arbovirus

Fetal microcephaly

Guillain-Barre´ syndrome

Mosquitoes

Zika virus

Journal Title the american journal of the medical sciences
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28502333
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
DA  - 20170515
LR  - 20170515
IS  - 1538-2990 (Electronic)
IS  - 0002-9629 (Linking)
VI  - 353
IP  - 5
DP  - 2017 May
TI  - Zika Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Human Disease.
PG  - 466-473
LID - S0002-9629(16)30696-6 [pii]
LID - 10.1016/j.amjms.2016.12.018 [doi]
AB  - The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the
      Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in
      Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes. Initial 
      reports describe sporadic mild viral infection with fever, arthralgia, myalgia
      and conjunctivitis in Africa and Asia. However, its geographic distribution has
      significantly increased, and it has caused large outbreaks in the Yap Islands in 
      2007, in French Polynesia in 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Multiple cases of
      Guillain-Barre syndrome occurred in French Polynesia and Columbia during
      outbreaks, and infections in pregnant women in Brazil have been associated with
      microcephaly and fetal loss. The viremic phase in humans is short, and diagnosis 
      usually depends on positive immunoglobulin M titers with serum neutralization
      tests for confirmation. Treatment is directed at symptoms; there are no antiviral
      drugs available. Transmission can also occur through sexual contact with infected
      men and through blood transfusion. Prevention is important in women and includes 
      limiting travel to endemic areas when possible, control of mosquito populations
      and condom use when appropriate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      is actively involved in tracking these infections and providing up-to-date
      information.
CI  - Copyright (c) 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by
      Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FAU - Nugent, Elizabeth K
AU  - Nugent EK
AD  - University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, Houston, Texas.
FAU - Nugent, Anne K
AU  - Nugent AK
AD  - University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.
FAU - Nugent, Rebecca
AU  - Nugent R
AD  - Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
FAU - Nugent, Kenneth
AU  - Nugent K
AD  - Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,
      Lubbock, Texas. Electronic address: [email protected]
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
DEP - 20161230
PL  - United States
TA  - Am J Med Sci
JT  - The American journal of the medical sciences
JID - 0370506
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Arbovirus
OT  - Fetal microcephaly
OT  - Guillain-Barre syndrome
OT  - Mosquitoes
OT  - Zika virus
EDAT- 2017/05/16 06:00
MHDA- 2017/05/16 06:00
CRDT- 2017/05/16 06:00
PHST- 2016/08/01 [received]
PHST- 2016/10/31 [revised]
PHST- 2016/12/28 [accepted]
AID - S0002-9629(16)30696-6 [pii]
AID - 10.1016/j.amjms.2016.12.018 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Am J Med Sci. 2017 May;353(5):466-473. doi: 10.1016/j.amjms.2016.12.018. Epub
      2016 Dec 30.

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