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A Novel A(H7N2) Influenza Virus Isolated from a Veterinarian Caring for Cats in a New York City Animal Shelter Causes Mild Disease and Transmits Poorly in the Ferret Model.

Abstract In December 2016, a low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) virus was identified to be the causative source of an outbreak in a cat shelter in New York City, which subsequently spread to multiple shelters in the states of New York and Pennsylvania. One person with occupational exposure to infected cats became infected with the virus, representing the first LPAI H7N2 virus infection in a human in North America since 2003. Considering the close contact that frequently occurs between companion animals and humans, it was critical to assess the relative risk of this novel virus to public health. The virus isolated from the human case, A/New York/108/2016 (NY/108), caused mild and transient illness in ferrets and mice but did not transmit to naive cohoused ferrets following traditional or aerosol-based inoculation methods. The environmental persistence of NY/108 virus was generally comparable to that of other LPAI H7N2 viruses. However, NY/108 virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells with an increased efficiency compared with that of previously isolated H7N2 viruses. Furthermore, the novel H7N2 virus was found to utilize a relatively lower pH for hemagglutinin activation, similar to human influenza viruses. Our data suggest that the LPAI H7N2 virus requires further adaptation before representing a substantial threat to public health. However, the reemergence of an LPAI H7N2 virus in the northeastern United States underscores the need for continuous surveillance of emerging zoonotic influenza viruses inclusive of mammalian species, such as domestic felines, that are not commonly considered intermediate hosts for avian influenza viruses.IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses are capable of crossing the species barrier to infect mammals, an event of public health concern due to the potential acquisition of a pandemic phenotype. In December 2016, an H7N2 virus caused an outbreak in cats in multiple animal shelters in New York State. This was the first detection of this virus in the northeastern United States in over a decade and the first documented infection of a felid with an H7N2 virus. A veterinarian became infected following occupational exposure to H7N2 virus-infected cats, necessitating the evaluation of this virus for its capacity to cause disease in mammals. While the H7N2 virus was associated with mild illness in mice and ferrets and did not spread well between ferrets, it nonetheless possessed several markers of virulence for mammals. These data highlight the promiscuity of influenza viruses and the need for diligent surveillance across multiple species to quickly identify an emerging strain with pandemic potential.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

H7N2

cats

ferret

influenza

low-pathogenic avian influenza virus

pathogenesis

transmission

Journal Title journal of virology
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28515300
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
DA  - 20170518
LR  - 20170713
IS  - 1098-5514 (Electronic)
IS  - 0022-538X (Linking)
VI  - 91
IP  - 15
DP  - 2017 Aug 01
TI  - A Novel A(H7N2) Influenza Virus Isolated from a Veterinarian Caring for Cats in a
      New York City Animal Shelter Causes Mild Disease and Transmits Poorly in the
      Ferret Model.
LID - e00672-17 [pii]
LID - 10.1128/JVI.00672-17 [doi]
AB  - In December 2016, a low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) virus was
      identified to be the causative source of an outbreak in a cat shelter in New York
      City, which subsequently spread to multiple shelters in the states of New York
      and Pennsylvania. One person with occupational exposure to infected cats became
      infected with the virus, representing the first LPAI H7N2 virus infection in a
      human in North America since 2003. Considering the close contact that frequently 
      occurs between companion animals and humans, it was critical to assess the
      relative risk of this novel virus to public health. The virus isolated from the
      human case, A/New York/108/2016 (NY/108), caused mild and transient illness in
      ferrets and mice but did not transmit to naive cohoused ferrets following
      traditional or aerosol-based inoculation methods. The environmental persistence
      of NY/108 virus was generally comparable to that of other LPAI H7N2 viruses.
      However, NY/108 virus replicated in human bronchial epithelial cells with an
      increased efficiency compared with that of previously isolated H7N2 viruses.
      Furthermore, the novel H7N2 virus was found to utilize a relatively lower pH for 
      hemagglutinin activation, similar to human influenza viruses. Our data suggest
      that the LPAI H7N2 virus requires further adaptation before representing a
      substantial threat to public health. However, the reemergence of an LPAI H7N2
      virus in the northeastern United States underscores the need for continuous
      surveillance of emerging zoonotic influenza viruses inclusive of mammalian
      species, such as domestic felines, that are not commonly considered intermediate 
      hosts for avian influenza viruses.IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses are capable 
      of crossing the species barrier to infect mammals, an event of public health
      concern due to the potential acquisition of a pandemic phenotype. In December
      2016, an H7N2 virus caused an outbreak in cats in multiple animal shelters in New
      York State. This was the first detection of this virus in the northeastern United
      States in over a decade and the first documented infection of a felid with an
      H7N2 virus. A veterinarian became infected following occupational exposure to
      H7N2 virus-infected cats, necessitating the evaluation of this virus for its
      capacity to cause disease in mammals. While the H7N2 virus was associated with
      mild illness in mice and ferrets and did not spread well between ferrets, it
      nonetheless possessed several markers of virulence for mammals. These data
      highlight the promiscuity of influenza viruses and the need for diligent
      surveillance across multiple species to quickly identify an emerging strain with 
      pandemic potential.
CI  - Copyright (c) 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
FAU - Belser, Jessica A
AU  - Belser JA
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A
AU  - Pulit-Penaloza JA
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Sun, Xiangjie
AU  - Sun X
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Brock, Nicole
AU  - Brock N
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Pappas, Claudia
AU  - Pappas C
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Creager, Hannah M
AU  - Creager HM
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
AD  - Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Zeng, Hui
AU  - Zeng H
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Tumpey, Terrence M
AU  - Tumpey TM
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
FAU - Maines, Taronna R
AU  - Maines TR
AD  - Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases,
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
      [email protected]
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170712
PL  - United States
TA  - J Virol
JT  - Journal of virology
JID - 0113724
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - H7N2
OT  - cats
OT  - ferret
OT  - influenza
OT  - low-pathogenic avian influenza virus
OT  - pathogenesis
OT  - transmission
EDAT- 2017/05/19 06:00
MHDA- 2017/05/19 06:00
CRDT- 2017/05/19 06:00
PHST- 2017/04/18 [received]
PHST- 2017/05/12 [accepted]
AID - JVI.00672-17 [pii]
AID - 10.1128/JVI.00672-17 [doi]
PST - epublish
SO  - J Virol. 2017 Jul 12;91(15). pii: e00672-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00672-17. Print
      2017 Aug 1.