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Using Molecular Characterization to Support Investigations of Aquatic Facility-Associated Outbreaks of Cryptosporidiosis - Alabama, Arizona, and Ohio, 2016.

Abstract Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, which can cause profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 2-3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening wasting and malabsorption in immunocompromised patients. Fecal-oral transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the parasite's infectious life stage, occurs via ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or following contact with infected persons or animals, particularly preweaned bovine calves (1). The typical incubation period is 2-10 days. Since 2004, the annual incidence of nationally notified cryptosporidiosis has risen approximately threefold in the United States (1). Cryptosporidium also has emerged as the leading etiology of nationally notified recreational water-associated outbreaks, particularly those associated with aquatic facilities (i.e., physical places that contain one or more aquatic venues [e.g., pools] and support infrastructure) (2). As of February 24, 2017, a total of 13 (54%) of 24 states reporting provisional data detected at least 32 aquatic facility-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in 2016. In comparison, 20 such outbreaks were voluntarily reported to CDC via the National Outbreak Reporting System for 2011, 16 for 2012, 13 for 2013, and 16 for 2014. This report highlights cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with aquatic facilities in three states (Alabama, Arizona, and Ohio) in 2016. This report also illustrates the use of CryptoNet, the first U.S. molecularly based surveillance system for a parasitic disease, to further elucidate Cryptosporidium chains of transmission and cryptosporidiosis epidemiology. CryptoNet data can be used to optimize evidence-based prevention strategies. Not swimming when ill with diarrhea is key to preventing and controlling aquatic facility-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks (https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/swimmers/steps-healthy-swimming.html).
PMID
Related Publications

Communitywide cryptosporidiosis outbreak--Utah, 2007.

Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events--United States, 2005-2006.

Preventing community-wide transmission of Cryptosporidium: a proactive public health response to a swimming pool-associated outbreak--Auglaize County, Ohio, USA.

Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks and other health events associated with recreational water --- United States, 2007--2008.

Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with recreational water use--five states, 2006.

Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Disease Outbreaks

Swimming Pools

Keywords
Journal Title mmwr. morbidity and mortality weekly report
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28520707
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170518
DCOM- 20170523
LR  - 20170523
IS  - 1545-861X (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-2195 (Linking)
VI  - 66
IP  - 19
DP  - 2017 May 19
TI  - Using Molecular Characterization to Support Investigations of Aquatic
      Facility-Associated Outbreaks of Cryptosporidiosis - Alabama, Arizona, and Ohio, 
      2016.
PG  - 493-497
LID - 10.15585/mmwr.mm6619a2 [doi]
AB  - Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by
      parasitic protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, which can cause profuse, watery 
      diarrhea that can last up to 2-3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead
      to life-threatening wasting and malabsorption in immunocompromised patients.
      Fecal-oral transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the parasite's infectious
      life stage, occurs via ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking
      water, or food, or following contact with infected persons or animals,
      particularly preweaned bovine calves (1). The typical incubation period is 2-10
      days. Since 2004, the annual incidence of nationally notified cryptosporidiosis
      has risen approximately threefold in the United States (1). Cryptosporidium also 
      has emerged as the leading etiology of nationally notified recreational
      water-associated outbreaks, particularly those associated with aquatic facilities
      (i.e., physical places that contain one or more aquatic venues [e.g., pools] and 
      support infrastructure) (2). As of February 24, 2017, a total of 13 (54%) of 24
      states reporting provisional data detected at least 32 aquatic
      facility-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in 2016. In comparison, 20 such
      outbreaks were voluntarily reported to CDC via the National Outbreak Reporting
      System for 2011, 16 for 2012, 13 for 2013, and 16 for 2014. This report
      highlights cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with aquatic facilities in
      three states (Alabama, Arizona, and Ohio) in 2016. This report also illustrates
      the use of CryptoNet, the first U.S. molecularly based surveillance system for a 
      parasitic disease, to further elucidate Cryptosporidium chains of transmission
      and cryptosporidiosis epidemiology. CryptoNet data can be used to optimize
      evidence-based prevention strategies. Not swimming when ill with diarrhea is key 
      to preventing and controlling aquatic facility-associated cryptosporidiosis
      outbreaks
      (https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/swimmers/steps-healthy-swimming.html).
FAU - Hlavsa, Michele C
AU  - Hlavsa MC
FAU - Roellig, Dawn M
AU  - Roellig DM
FAU - Seabolt, Matthew H
AU  - Seabolt MH
FAU - Kahler, Amy M
AU  - Kahler AM
FAU - Murphy, Jennifer L
AU  - Murphy JL
FAU - McKitt, Taishayla K
AU  - McKitt TK
FAU - Geeter, Evelyn F
AU  - Geeter EF
FAU - Dawsey, Ron
AU  - Dawsey R
FAU - Davidson, Sherri L
AU  - Davidson SL
FAU - Kim, Thuy N
AU  - Kim TN
FAU - Tucker, Theresa H
AU  - Tucker TH
FAU - Iverson, Sally Ann
AU  - Iverson SA
FAU - Garrett, Brenna
AU  - Garrett B
FAU - Fowle, Nicole
AU  - Fowle N
FAU - Collins, Jennifer
AU  - Collins J
FAU - Epperson, Gregory
AU  - Epperson G
FAU - Zusy, Scott
AU  - Zusy S
FAU - Weiss, Joli R
AU  - Weiss JR
FAU - Komatsu, Ken
AU  - Komatsu K
FAU - Rodriguez, Edwin
AU  - Rodriguez E
FAU - Patterson, J Gage
AU  - Patterson JG
FAU - Sunenshine, Rebecca
AU  - Sunenshine R
FAU - Taylor, Brandi
AU  - Taylor B
FAU - Cibulskas, Katie
AU  - Cibulskas K
FAU - Denny, Lynn
AU  - Denny L
FAU - Omura, Keoni
AU  - Omura K
FAU - Tsorin, Boris
AU  - Tsorin B
FAU - Fullerton, Kathleen E
AU  - Fullerton KE
FAU - Xiao, Lihua
AU  - Xiao L
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170519
PL  - United States
TA  - MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
JT  - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
JID - 7802429
SB  - IM
MH  - Alabama/epidemiology
MH  - Arizona/epidemiology
MH  - Cryptosporidiosis/*epidemiology/transmission
MH  - Cryptosporidium/*isolation & purification
MH  - *Disease Outbreaks
MH  - Humans
MH  - Ohio/epidemiology
MH  - Population Surveillance/*methods
MH  - *Swimming Pools
EDAT- 2017/05/19 06:00
MHDA- 2017/05/24 06:00
CRDT- 2017/05/19 06:00
AID - 10.15585/mmwr.mm6619a2 [doi]
PST - epublish
SO  - MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 19;66(19):493-497. doi:
      10.15585/mmwr.mm6619a2.

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