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Legionella risk assessment in cruise ships and ferries.

Abstract <b>Introduction.</b> The increasing development of marine traffic has led to a rise in the incidence of legionellosis among travellers. It occurs in similar environments, especially closed and crowded, and aboard ships Legionella survives and multiplies easily in water pipes, spreading into the environment through air conditioning systems and water distribution points. Although in recent years in the construction of cruise ships preventive measures aimed at curbing the proliferation of Legionella (design, materials, focus on the operation and maintenance of the water system), have been taken account, little or no attention has been paid to small ships which, in many cases, are old and not well maintained. <b>Objective.</b> The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of Legionella contamination in ferries and cruise ships in order to adopt more specific control measures. <b>Materials and method.</b> A prevalence study was carried out on 10 ferries and 6 cruise ships docking or in transit across the port of Messina (Sicily, Italy). Water and air samples collected from many critical points were tested for qualitative and quantitative identification of Legionella. <b>Results and conclusions.</b> Legionella pneumophila sg 1 was isolated from the samples of shower and tap water in 7 (70%) of the 10 ferries examined, and in 3 (33%) of the 6 cruise ships examined, and L. pneumophila sg 2-14 in 8 (80%) and 1 (16.7%) of these ships, respectively. No Legionella contamination was found in whirlpool baths, air and ice samples. In conclusion, the data obtained confirm higher levels of Legionella contamination in local ferries and cruise ships, underlining the need to adopt corrective actions more specific for these smaller vessels.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Legionella

cruise ships

preventive measures

Journal Title annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : aaem
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28664708
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170630
DCOM- 20170710
LR  - 20170713
IS  - 1898-2263 (Electronic)
IS  - 1232-1966 (Linking)
VI  - 24
IP  - 2
DP  - 2017 Jun 12
TI  - Legionella risk assessment in cruise ships and ferries.
PG  - 276-282
LID - 74717 [pii]
AB  - &lt;b&gt;Introduction.&lt;/b&gt; The increasing development of marine traffic has led to a
      rise in the incidence of legionellosis among travellers. It occurs in similar
      environments, especially closed and crowded, and aboard ships Legionella survives
      and multiplies easily in water pipes, spreading into the environment through air 
      conditioning systems and water distribution points. Although in recent years in
      the construction of cruise ships preventive measures aimed at curbing the
      proliferation of Legionella (design, materials, focus on the operation and
      maintenance of the water system), have been taken account, little or no attention
      has been paid to small ships which, in many cases, are old and not well
      maintained. &lt;b&gt;Objective.&lt;/b&gt; The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency 
      and severity of Legionella contamination in ferries and cruise ships in order to 
      adopt more specific control measures. &lt;b&gt;Materials and method.&lt;/b&gt; A prevalence
      study was carried out on 10 ferries and 6 cruise ships docking or in transit
      across the port of Messina (Sicily, Italy). Water and air samples collected from 
      many critical points were tested for qualitative and quantitative identification 
      of Legionella. &lt;b&gt;Results and conclusions.&lt;/b&gt; Legionella pneumophila sg 1 was
      isolated from the samples of shower and tap water in 7 (70%) of the 10 ferries
      examined, and in 3 (33%) of the 6 cruise ships examined, and L. pneumophila sg
      2-14 in 8 (80%) and 1 (16.7%) of these ships, respectively. No Legionella
      contamination was found in whirlpool baths, air and ice samples. In conclusion,
      the data obtained confirm higher levels of Legionella contamination in local
      ferries and cruise ships, underlining the need to adopt corrective actions more
      specific for these smaller vessels.
FAU - Lagana, Pasqualina
AU  - Lagana P
AD  - Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging,
      University of Messina, Italy. [email protected]
FAU - Gambuzza, Maria Elsa
AU  - Gambuzza ME
AD  - Ministry of Health, USM, Territorial Office of Messina, Sicily, Italy.
FAU - Delia, Santi
AU  - Delia S
AD  - Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging,
      University of Messina, Italy.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170612
PL  - Poland
TA  - Ann Agric Environ Med
JT  - Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : AAEM
JID - 9500166
SB  - IM
MH  - Humans
MH  - Italy/epidemiology
MH  - Legionella/genetics/*isolation &amp; purification/physiology
MH  - Legionellosis/*epidemiology/microbiology
MH  - Risk Assessment
MH  - Ships/statistics &amp; numerical data
MH  - Travel/statistics &amp; numerical data
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Legionella
OT  - cruise ships
OT  - preventive measures
EDAT- 2017/07/01 06:00
MHDA- 2017/07/14 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/01 06:00
AID - 74717 [pii]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017 Jun 12;24(2):276-282. Epub 2017 Jun 12.