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Paediatric otogenic tetanus: an evidence of poor immunization in Nigeria.

Abstract Suppurative otitis media is a common childhood infection that predisposes to otogenic tetanus. Tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease that is associated with high cost of care and mortality. This study highlights reasons for otogenic tetanus in Nigerian children and way of reducing the menace. This is a 5-year retrospective review of all patients managed for otogenic tetanus in at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. The data collected include demographic, clinical presentations, tetanus immunisation history, and duration of hospital admission, and management- outcome. There were 23 patients comprising of 13(56.5 %) males and 10 (43.5%) females, male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The age ranged between 11 months and12 years (mean age 3.4 years ± 2.1). All the patients presented with discharging ear, trismus and spasms. The onset of symptoms prior hospital presentation ranged between 2 - 11 days (mean 3.0 days ± 1.3). Only 12(52.1%) patients had complete childhood tetanus immunisation, 6(26.1) % had no tetanus immunisation and no other childhood immunisation, while 5(21.7%) had partial tetanus immunisation. The discharging ears were managed by self-medication and other harmful health practices. The hospital admission ranged from 20 days - 41days (average of 23days) and there were 3(13.0 %) death. Tetanus immunization was not received because of; non- availability of the vaccine at health centers, lack of health facility in communities, fear of complications from immunization, poor awareness of the immunization programme. Tetanus, an immunisable disease, is still a major problem in Nigeria.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Childhood

Nigeria

otogenic tetanus

paediatric

tetanus immunization

Journal Title the pan african medical journal
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28674570
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170704
DCOM- 20170717
LR  - 20170717
IS  - 1937-8688 (Electronic)
VI  - 26
DP  - 2017
TI  - Paediatric otogenic tetanus: an evidence of poor immunization in Nigeria.
PG  - 177
LID - 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.177.11519 [doi]
AB  - Suppurative otitis media is a common childhood infection that predisposes to
      otogenic tetanus. Tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease that is associated
      with high cost of care and mortality. This study highlights reasons for otogenic 
      tetanus in Nigerian children and way of reducing the menace. This is a 5-year
      retrospective review of all patients managed for otogenic tetanus in at the
      Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. The data 
      collected include demographic, clinical presentations, tetanus immunisation
      history, and duration of hospital admission, and management- outcome. There were 
      23 patients comprising of 13(56.5 %) males and 10 (43.5%) females, male to female
      ratio was 1.3:1. The age ranged between 11 months and12 years (mean age 3.4 years
      +/- 2.1). All the patients presented with discharging ear, trismus and spasms.
      The onset of symptoms prior hospital presentation ranged between 2 - 11 days
      (mean 3.0 days +/- 1.3). Only 12(52.1%) patients had complete childhood tetanus
      immunisation, 6(26.1) % had no tetanus immunisation and no other childhood
      immunisation, while 5(21.7%) had partial tetanus immunisation. The discharging
      ears were managed by self-medication and other harmful health practices. The
      hospital admission ranged from 20 days - 41days (average of 23days) and there
      were 3(13.0 %) death. Tetanus immunization was not received because of; non-
      availability of the vaccine at health centers, lack of health facility in
      communities, fear of complications from immunization, poor awareness of the
      immunization programme. Tetanus, an immunisable disease, is still a major problem
      in Nigeria.
FAU - Ogunkeyede, Segun Ayodeji
AU  - Ogunkeyede SA
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan,
      Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria.
FAU - Daniel, Adekunle
AU  - Daniel A
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan,
      Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria.
FAU - Ogundoyin, Omowonuola
AU  - Ogundoyin O
AD  - Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan,
      Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170329
PL  - Uganda
TA  - Pan Afr Med J
JT  - The Pan African medical journal
JID - 101517926
RN  - 0 (Tetanus Toxoid)
SB  - IM
MH  - Child
MH  - Child, Preschool
MH  - Ear Diseases/epidemiology/*microbiology/pathology
MH  - Female
MH  - Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
MH  - Humans
MH  - Immunization/statistics & numerical data
MH  - Infant
MH  - Length of Stay
MH  - Male
MH  - Nigeria/epidemiology
MH  - Otitis Media, Suppurative/*complications/epidemiology
MH  - Retrospective Studies
MH  - Tetanus/*epidemiology/etiology/prevention & control
MH  - Tetanus Toxoid/*administration & dosage
MH  - Time Factors
PMC - PMC5483367
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Childhood
OT  - Nigeria
OT  - otogenic tetanus
OT  - paediatric
OT  - tetanus immunization
COI - The authors declare no competing interests.
EDAT- 2017/07/05 06:00
MHDA- 2017/07/18 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/05 06:00
PHST- 2016/12/28 [received]
PHST- 2017/03/27 [accepted]
AID - 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.177.11519 [doi]
AID - PAMJ-26-177 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - Pan Afr Med J. 2017 Mar 29;26:177. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.177.11519.
      eCollection 2017.