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The socio-economic burden of snakebite in Sri Lanka.

Abstract Snakebite is a major problem affecting the rural poor in many of the poorest countries in the tropics. However, the scale of the socio-economic burden has rarely been studied. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of the burden in Sri Lanka.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Health Care Costs

Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28683119
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170706
DCOM- 20170804
LR  - 20170804
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 7
DP  - 2017 Jul
TI  - The socio-economic burden of snakebite in Sri Lanka.
PG  - e0005647
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005647 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a major problem affecting the rural poor in many of the 
      poorest countries in the tropics. However, the scale of the socio-economic burden
      has rarely been studied. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of the burden in
      Sri Lanka. METHODS: Data from a representative nation-wide community based
      household survey were used to estimate the number of bites and deaths nationally,
      and household and out of pocket costs were derived from household questionnaires.
      Health system costs were obtained from hospital cost accounting systems and
      estimates of antivenom usage. DALYs lost to snakebite were estimated using
      standard approaches using disability weights for poisoning. FINDINGS: 79% of
      victims suffered economic loss following a snakebite with a median out of pocket 
      expenditure of $11.82 (IQR 2-28.57) and a median estimated loss of income of
      $28.57 and $33.21 for those in employment or self-employment, respectively.
      Family members also lost income to help care for patients. Estimated health
      system costs for Sri Lanka were $ 10,260,652 annually. The annual estimated total
      number of DALYS was 11,101 to 15,076 per year for envenoming following snakebite.
      INTERPRETATION: Snakebite places a considerable economic burden on the households
      of victims in Sri Lanka, despite a health system which is accessible and free at 
      the point of care. The disability burden is also considerable, similar to that of
      meningitis or dengue, although the relatively low case fatality rate and limited 
      physical sequelae following bites by Sri Lankan snakes means that this burden may
      be less than in countries on the African continent.
FAU - Kasturiratne, Anuradhani
AU  - Kasturiratne A
AD  - Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
FAU - Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam
AU  - Pathmeswaran A
AD  - Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
FAU - Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha
AU  - Wickremasinghe AR
AD  - Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
FAU - Jayamanne, Shaluka F
AU  - Jayamanne SF
AD  - Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
AD  - South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration (SACTRC), Faculty of
      Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
FAU - Dawson, Andrew
AU  - Dawson A
AD  - South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration (SACTRC), Faculty of
      Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
FAU - Isbister, Geoff K
AU  - Isbister GK
AD  - South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration (SACTRC), Faculty of
      Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
AD  - Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Callaghan,
      Australia.
FAU - de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka
AU  - de Silva HJ
AD  - Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
FAU - Lalloo, David G
AU  - Lalloo DG
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7680-2200
AD  - Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170706
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
RN  - 0 (Antivenins)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Antivenins/economics/therapeutic use
MH  - *Health Care Costs
MH  - Humans
MH  - Income
MH  - Snake Bites/*economics/epidemiology/*therapy
MH  - Sri Lanka/epidemiology
PMC - PMC5500261
EDAT- 2017/07/07 06:00
MHDA- 2017/08/05 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/07 06:00
PHST- 2017/02/12 [received]
PHST- 2017/05/17 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005647 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-00214 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jul 6;11(7):e0005647. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005647.
      eCollection 2017 Jul.