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The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

Abstract Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3). The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001), and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047). A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2). Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047), was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further evidence for RVFV circulation in western Kenya.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28686589
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
DA  - 20170707
LR  - 20170707
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 7
DP  - 2017 Jul 07
TI  - The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin
      of western Kenya.
PG  - e0005731
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005731 [doi]
AB  - Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and
      people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not
      previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk
      factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and
      compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a 
      high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya
      between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly
      selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire
      tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk
      factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined
      seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was
      conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were
      sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8%
      (95% CI 0.5-1.3). The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity
      in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p&lt;0.001), and
      slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047). A
      total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. 
      The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2).
      Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI
      1.0-12.1, p = 0.047), was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This
      study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community
      members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that
      slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that
      slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this
      environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies
      providing further evidence for RVFV circulation in western Kenya.
FAU - Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jessie
AU  - Cook EAJ
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6081-8363
AD  - Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh,
      Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
AD  - International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
FAU - Grossi-Soyster, Elysse Noel
AU  - Grossi-Soyster EN
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford,
      United States of America.
FAU - de Glanville, William Anson
AU  - de Glanville WA
AD  - Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh,
      Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
AD  - International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
FAU - Thomas, Lian Francesca
AU  - Thomas LF
AD  - Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh,
      Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
AD  - International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
FAU - Kariuki, Samuel
AU  - Kariuki S
AD  - Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi,
      Kenya.
FAU - Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare
AU  - Bronsvoort BMC
AD  - The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, United Kingdom.
AD  - Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin,
      United Kingdom.
FAU - Wamae, Claire Njeri
AU  - Wamae CN
AD  - Department of Microbiology, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya.
FAU - LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree
AU  - LaBeaud AD
AD  - Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford,
      United States of America.
FAU - Fevre, Eric Maurice
AU  - Fevre EM
AD  - International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
AD  - Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Neston, United
      Kingdom.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170707
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
EDAT- 2017/07/08 06:00
MHDA- 2017/07/08 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/08 06:00
PHST- 2016/11/23 [received]
PHST- 2017/06/20 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005731 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-16-02084 [pii]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jul 7;11(7):e0005731. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005731.