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Local and global genetic diversity of protozoan parasites: Spatial distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes.

Abstract Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are recognized as significant enteric diseases due to their long-term health effects in humans and their economic impact in agriculture and medical care. Molecular analysis is essential to identify species and genotypes causing these infectious diseases and provides a potential tool for monitoring. This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Here, we describe the population heterogeneity of genotypic groups within Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in New Zealand using gp60 and gdh markers to compare the observed variation with other countries around the globe. Four species of Cryptosporidium were identified in New Zealand using gp60 (C. hominis, C. parvum, C. cuniculus and C. erinacei) and one species of Giardia (G. intestinalis) with gdh. These species have been reported worldwide and there are not unique gp60 subtype families and gdh assemblages in New Zealand, most likely due to high gene flow of historical and current human activity (travel and trade) and persistence of large host population sizes. The global analysis revealed that genetic variants of these pathogens are widely distributed. However, genetic variation is underestimated by data biases (e.g. neglected submission of sequences to genetic databases) and low sampling. New genotypes are likely to be discovered as sampling efforts increase according to accumulation prediction analyses, especially for C. parvum. Our study highlights the need for greater sampling and archiving of genotypes globally to allow comparative analyses that help understand the population dynamics of these protozoan parasites. Overall our study represents a comprehensive overview for exploring local and global protozoan genotype diversity and advances our understanding of the importance for surveillance and potential risk associated with these infectious diseases.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28704362
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
DA  - 20170713
LR  - 20170713
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 7
DP  - 2017 Jul 13
TI  - Local and global genetic diversity of protozoan parasites: Spatial distribution
      of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes.
PG  - e0005736
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005736 [doi]
AB  - Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are recognized as significant enteric diseases
      due to their long-term health effects in humans and their economic impact in
      agriculture and medical care. Molecular analysis is essential to identify species
      and genotypes causing these infectious diseases and provides a potential tool for
      monitoring. This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain
      insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns of
      Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Here, we describe the population
      heterogeneity of genotypic groups within Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in
      New Zealand using gp60 and gdh markers to compare the observed variation with
      other countries around the globe. Four species of Cryptosporidium were identified
      in New Zealand using gp60 (C. hominis, C. parvum, C. cuniculus and C. erinacei)
      and one species of Giardia (G. intestinalis) with gdh. These species have been
      reported worldwide and there are not unique gp60 subtype families and gdh
      assemblages in New Zealand, most likely due to high gene flow of historical and
      current human activity (travel and trade) and persistence of large host
      population sizes. The global analysis revealed that genetic variants of these
      pathogens are widely distributed. However, genetic variation is underestimated by
      data biases (e.g. neglected submission of sequences to genetic databases) and low
      sampling. New genotypes are likely to be discovered as sampling efforts increase 
      according to accumulation prediction analyses, especially for C. parvum. Our
      study highlights the need for greater sampling and archiving of genotypes
      globally to allow comparative analyses that help understand the population
      dynamics of these protozoan parasites. Overall our study represents a
      comprehensive overview for exploring local and global protozoan genotype
      diversity and advances our understanding of the importance for surveillance and
      potential risk associated with these infectious diseases.
FAU - Garcia-R, Juan C
AU  - Garcia-R JC
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6665-9671
AD  - Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, 
      Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
FAU - French, Nigel
AU  - French N
AD  - Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, 
      Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
FAU - Pita, Anthony
AU  - Pita A
AD  - Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, 
      Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
FAU - Velathanthiri, Niluka
AU  - Velathanthiri N
AD  - Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, 
      Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
FAU - Shrestha, Rima
AU  - Shrestha R
AD  - Institute of Veterinary, Animal & Biomedical Sciences, Massey University,
      Palmerston North, New Zealand.
FAU - Hayman, David
AU  - Hayman D
AD  - Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, 
      Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170713
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
EDAT- 2017/07/14 06:00
MHDA- 2017/07/14 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/14 06:00
PHST- 2017/01/24 [received]
PHST- 2017/06/21 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005736 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-00090 [pii]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jul 13;11(7):e0005736. doi:
      10.1371/journal.pntd.0005736.