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Visceral leishmaniasis in an environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil: Epidemiological and laboratory cross-sectional investigation of phlebotomine fauna, wild hosts and canine cases.

Abstract Leishmaniasis is a rapidly expanding zoonosis that shows increasing urbanization. Concern exists regarding the role of wildlife in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission, due to frequent natural or anthropogenic environmental changes that facilitate contact between wildlife, humans and their pets. The municipality of Campinas, in southeastern Brazil, initially recorded VL in 2009, when the first autochthonous case was confirmed in a dog living in an upscale residential condominium, located inside an environmentally protected area (EPA). Since then, disease transmission remains restricted to dogs inhabiting two geographically contiguous condominiums within the EPA.
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28704391
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170713
DCOM- 20170726
LR  - 20170726
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 7
DP  - 2017 Jul
TI  - Visceral leishmaniasis in an environmentally protected area in southeastern
      Brazil: Epidemiological and laboratory cross-sectional investigation of
      phlebotomine fauna, wild hosts and canine cases.
PG  - e0005666
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005666 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a rapidly expanding zoonosis that shows increasing
      urbanization. Concern exists regarding the role of wildlife in visceral
      leishmaniasis (VL) transmission, due to frequent natural or anthropogenic
      environmental changes that facilitate contact between wildlife, humans and their 
      pets. The municipality of Campinas, in southeastern Brazil, initially recorded VL
      in 2009, when the first autochthonous case was confirmed in a dog living in an
      upscale residential condominium, located inside an environmentally protected area
      (EPA). Since then, disease transmission remains restricted to dogs inhabiting two
      geographically contiguous condominiums within the EPA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL
      FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the VL focus to investigate
      Leishmania spp. infection in domestic dogs, wild mammals and sand flies using
      molecular tools and recommended serological techniques. Canine seroprevalences of
      1.5% and 1.2% were observed in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Six insect species,
      confirmed or suspected vectors or potential transmitters of Leishmania, were
      identified. Two specimens of the main L. (L.) infantum vector in Brazil,
      Lutzomyia longipalpis, were captured in the EPA. Natural infection by L. (L.)
      infantum was recorded in one Expapillata firmatoi specimen and two Pintomyia
      monticola. Natural infection by L. (L.) infantum and Leishmania subgenus Viannia 
      was also detected in two white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), a known
      reservoir of VL. Geographical coordinates of each sampling of infected animals
      were plotted on a map of the EPA, demonstrating proximity between these animals, 
      human residences, including the dogs positive for VL, and forest areas.
      CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The EPA, which is inhabited by humans, has an active VL
      focus. The risk of establishing and maintaining disease transmission foci in
      similar scenarios, i.e. wild areas that undergo environmental modifications, is
      evident. Moreover, different epidemiological profiles of VL must be included to
      elaborate prevention and control measures that consider the particularities of
      each transmission area.
FAU - Donalisio, Maria Rita
AU  - Donalisio MR
AD  - Department of Public Health, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo,
      Brazil.
FAU - Paiz, Lais Moraes
AU  - Paiz LM
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2152-1302
AD  - Department of Public Health, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo,
      Brazil.
FAU - da Silva, Vanessa Gusmon
AU  - da Silva VG
AD  - Center for Systemic Parasitic Diseases, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, Sao
      Paulo, Brazil.
FAU - Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelao
AU  - Richini-Pereira VB
AD  - Bauru II Center of Regional Laboratories, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Bauru, Sao
      Paulo, Brazil.
FAU - von Zuben, Andrea Paula Bruno
AU  - von Zuben APB
AD  - Campinas Municipal Health Department, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
FAU - Castagna, Claudio Luiz
AU  - Castagna CL
AD  - Campinas Municipal Health Department, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
FAU - Motoie, Gabriela
AU  - Motoie G
AD  - Center for Systemic Parasitic Diseases, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, Sao
      Paulo, Brazil.
FAU - Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi
AU  - Hiramoto RM
AD  - Center for Systemic Parasitic Diseases, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, Sao
      Paulo, Brazil.
FAU - Tolezano, Jose Eduardo
AU  - Tolezano JE
AD  - Center for Systemic Parasitic Diseases, Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, Sao
      Paulo, Brazil.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170713
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Animals, Wild/*parasitology
MH  - Brazil/epidemiology
MH  - Cross-Sectional Studies
MH  - Dogs
MH  - Insect Vectors/*parasitology
MH  - Leishmania/classification/*isolation & purification
MH  - Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology/*veterinary
MH  - Psychodidae/*parasitology
MH  - Seroepidemiologic Studies
MH  - Zoonoses/*epidemiology
EDAT- 2017/07/14 06:00
MHDA- 2017/07/27 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/14 06:00
PHST- 2017/01/09 [received]
PHST- 2017/05/26 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005666 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-00007 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jul 13;11(7):e0005666. doi:
      10.1371/journal.pntd.0005666. eCollection 2017 Jul.