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Arginase activity in pathogenic and non-pathogenic species of Leishmania parasites.

Abstract Proliferation of Leishmania (L.) parasites depends on polyamine availability, which can be generated by the L-arginine catabolism and the enzymatic activity of arginase (ARG) of the parasites and of the mammalian hosts. In the present study, we characterized and compared the arginase (arg) genes from pathogenic L. major and L. tropica and from non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. We quantified the level of the ARG activity in promastigotes and macrophages infected with pathogenic L. major and L. tropica and non-pathogenic L. tarentolae amastigotes. The ARG's amino acid sequences of the pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leishmania demonstrated virtually 98.6% and 88% identities with the reference L. major Friedlin ARG. Higher ARG activity was observed in all pathogenic promastigotes as compared to non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. In vitro infection of human macrophage cell line (THP1) with pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leishmania spp. resulted in increased ARG activities in the infected macrophages. The ARG activities present in vivo were assessed in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with L. major, L. tropica and L. tarentolae. We demonstrated that during the development of the infection, ARG is induced in both strains of mice infected with pathogenic Leishmania. However, in L. major infected BALB/c mice, the induction of ARG and parasite load increased simultaneously according to the time course of infection, whereas in C57BL/6 mice, the enzyme is upregulated solely during the period of footpad swelling. In L. tropica infected mice, the footpads' swellings were slow to develop and demonstrated minimal cutaneous pathology and ARG activity. In contrast, ARG activity was undetectable in mice inoculated with the non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. Our data suggest that infection by Leishmania parasites can increase ARG activity of the host and provides essential polyamines for parasite salvage and its replication. Moreover, the ARG of Leishmania is vital for parasite proliferation and required for infection in mice. ARG activity can be used as one of the main marker of the disease severity.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28708893
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170714
DCOM- 20170801
LR  - 20170801
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 7
DP  - 2017 Jul
TI  - Arginase activity in pathogenic and non-pathogenic species of Leishmania
      parasites.
PG  - e0005774
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005774 [doi]
AB  - Proliferation of Leishmania (L.) parasites depends on polyamine availability,
      which can be generated by the L-arginine catabolism and the enzymatic activity of
      arginase (ARG) of the parasites and of the mammalian hosts. In the present study,
      we characterized and compared the arginase (arg) genes from pathogenic L. major
      and L. tropica and from non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. We quantified the level of 
      the ARG activity in promastigotes and macrophages infected with pathogenic L.
      major and L. tropica and non-pathogenic L. tarentolae amastigotes. The ARG's
      amino acid sequences of the pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leishmania demonstrated
      virtually 98.6% and 88% identities with the reference L. major Friedlin ARG.
      Higher ARG activity was observed in all pathogenic promastigotes as compared to
      non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. In vitro infection of human macrophage cell line
      (THP1) with pathogenic and non-pathogenic Leishmania spp. resulted in increased
      ARG activities in the infected macrophages. The ARG activities present in vivo
      were assessed in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with L.
      major, L. tropica and L. tarentolae. We demonstrated that during the development 
      of the infection, ARG is induced in both strains of mice infected with pathogenic
      Leishmania. However, in L. major infected BALB/c mice, the induction of ARG and
      parasite load increased simultaneously according to the time course of infection,
      whereas in C57BL/6 mice, the enzyme is upregulated solely during the period of
      footpad swelling. In L. tropica infected mice, the footpads' swellings were slow 
      to develop and demonstrated minimal cutaneous pathology and ARG activity. In
      contrast, ARG activity was undetectable in mice inoculated with the
      non-pathogenic L. tarentolae. Our data suggest that infection by Leishmania
      parasites can increase ARG activity of the host and provides essential polyamines
      for parasite salvage and its replication. Moreover, the ARG of Leishmania is
      vital for parasite proliferation and required for infection in mice. ARG activity
      can be used as one of the main marker of the disease severity.
FAU - Badirzadeh, Alireza
AU  - Badirzadeh A
AD  - Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of
      Iran, Tehran, Iran.
AD  - Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid
      Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
FAU - Taheri, Tahereh
AU  - Taheri T
AD  - Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of
      Iran, Tehran, Iran.
FAU - Taslimi, Yasaman
AU  - Taslimi Y
AD  - Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of
      Iran, Tehran, Iran.
FAU - Abdossamadi, Zahra
AU  - Abdossamadi Z
AD  - Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of
      Iran, Tehran, Iran.
FAU - Heidari-Kharaji, Maryam
AU  - Heidari-Kharaji M
AD  - Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of
      Iran, Tehran, Iran.
FAU - Gholami, Elham
AU  - Gholami E
AD  - Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of
      Iran, Tehran, Iran.
FAU - Sedaghat, Baharehsadat
AU  - Sedaghat B
AD  - Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of
      Iran, Tehran, Iran.
FAU - Niyyati, Maryam
AU  - Niyyati M
AD  - Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid
      Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
FAU - Rafati, Sima
AU  - Rafati S
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7221-1320
AD  - Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of
      Iran, Tehran, Iran.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170714
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
RN  - 0 (Polyamines)
RN  - 0 (arginine polyamine)
RN  - 94ZLA3W45F (Arginine)
RN  - EC 3.5.3.1 (Arginase)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Arginase/genetics/*metabolism
MH  - Arginine/*analogs & derivatives/genetics
MH  - Cell Culture Techniques
MH  - Cell Line
MH  - Female
MH  - Humans
MH  - Leishmania/classification/*enzymology/genetics
MH  - Leishmaniasis/*parasitology
MH  - Lymph Nodes/parasitology
MH  - Macrophages/*parasitology
MH  - Mice
MH  - Mice, Inbred BALB C
MH  - Mice, Inbred C57BL
MH  - Parasite Load
MH  - Phylogeny
MH  - Polyamines
MH  - Sequence Analysis, DNA
EDAT- 2017/07/15 06:00
MHDA- 2017/08/02 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/15 06:00
PHST- 2017/05/11 [received]
PHST- 2017/07/05 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/07/26 [revised]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005774 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-00763 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jul 14;11(7):e0005774. doi:
      10.1371/journal.pntd.0005774. eCollection 2017 Jul.