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Characterizing the malaria rural-to-urban transmission interface: The importance of reactive case detection.

Abstract Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28715415
OWN - NLM
STAT- Publisher
DA  - 20170717
LR  - 20170717
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 7
DP  - 2017 Jul 17
TI  - Characterizing the malaria rural-to-urban transmission interface: The importance 
      of reactive case detection.
PG  - e0005780
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005780 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America,
      however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an
      integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the
      rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and
      parasite genotyping methods. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive study that
      combines active (ACD), passive (PCD), and reactive (RCD) case detection was
      performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdo, Colombia. Heads of
      households were interviewed and epidemiological surveys were conducted to assess 
      malaria prevalence and identify potential risk factors. Sixteen primary cases,
      eight by ACD and eight by PCD were recruited for RCD. Using the RCD strategy,
      prevalence of 1% by microscopy (6/604) and 9% by quantitative polymerase chain
      reaction (qPCR) (52/604) were found. A total of 73 houses and 289 volunteers were
      screened leading to 41 secondary cases, all of them in peri-urban settings (14%
      prevalence). Most secondary cases were genetically distinct from primary cases
      indicating that there were independent occurrences. Plasmodium vivax was the
      predominant species (76.3%, 71/93), most of them being asymptomatic (46/71).
      Urban and peri-urban neighborhoods had significant sociodemographic differences. 
      Twenty-four potential breeding sites were identified, all in peri-urban areas.
      The predominant vectors for 1,305 adults were Anopheles nuneztovari (56,2%) and
      An. Darlingi (42,5%). One An. nuneztovari specimen was confirmed naturally
      infected with P. falciparum by ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence
      supporting the existence of urban malaria transmission in Quibdo. RCD strategy
      was more efficient for identifying malaria cases than ACD alone in areas where
      malaria transmission is variable and unstable. Incorporating parasite genotyping 
      allows discovering hidden patterns of malaria transmission that cannot be
      detected otherwise. We propose to use the term "focal case" for those primary
      cases that lead to discovery of secondary but genetically unrelated malaria cases
      indicating undetected malaria transmission.
FAU - Molina Gomez, Karen
AU  - Molina Gomez K
AD  - Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Cali, Colombia.
FAU - Caicedo, M Alejandra
AU  - Caicedo MA
AD  - Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Cali, Colombia.
FAU - Gaitan, Alexandra
AU  - Gaitan A
AD  - Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Cali, Colombia.
FAU - Herrera-Varela, Manuela
AU  - Herrera-Varela M
AD  - Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Cali, Colombia.
FAU - Arce, Maria Isabel
AU  - Arce MI
AD  - Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Cali, Colombia.
FAU - Vallejo, Andres F
AU  - Vallejo AF
AD  - Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Cali, Colombia.
FAU - Padilla, Julio
AU  - Padilla J
AD  - Ministerio de Salud y Proteccion Social de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia.
FAU - Chaparro, Pablo
AU  - Chaparro P
AD  - Instituto Nacional de Salud de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia.
FAU - Pacheco, M Andreina
AU  - Pacheco MA
AD  - Department of Biology/Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine (iGEM),
      Temple University, Philadelphia- Pennsylvania, United States of America.
FAU - Escalante, Ananias A
AU  - Escalante AA
AD  - Department of Biology/Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine (iGEM),
      Temple University, Philadelphia- Pennsylvania, United States of America.
FAU - Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam
AU  - Arevalo-Herrera M
AD  - Caucaseco Scientific Research Center, Cali, Colombia.
AD  - Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Health, Universidad del Valle, Cali,
      Colombia.
FAU - Herrera Valencia, Socrates
AU  - Herrera Valencia S
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4688-0598
AD  - Caucaseco Scientific Research Center, Cali, Colombia.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170717
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
EDAT- 2017/07/18 06:00
MHDA- 2017/07/18 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/18 06:00
PHST- 2017/04/12 [received]
PHST- 2017/07/05 [accepted]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005780 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-00532 [pii]
PST - aheadofprint
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jul 17;11(7):e0005780. doi:
      10.1371/journal.pntd.0005780.