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Seasonal Variation in the Epidemiology of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections across Two Catchment Areas in Bongo District, Ghana.

Abstract Understanding the epidemiology of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections is critical for countries to move toward malaria elimination. Using different methods for parasite detection, we evaluated how seasonality, spatial location, and other factors affect the age-specific epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria in Bongo District, Ghana. Asymptomatic prevalence by microscopy decreased significantly from 42.5% at the end of the wet to 27.5% at the end of the dry season (P < 0.001). Using the 18S rRNA polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), all microscopy-negative samples were screened and prevalence of submicroscopic infections also decreased significantly from the wet (55.4%) to the dry (20.7%) season (P < 0.001). Combining detection methods, 74.4% and 42.5% of the population in the wet and dry seasons, respectively, had evidence of a P. falciparum infection. Interestingly in those > 20 years of age, we found evidence of infection in 64.3% of the population in the wet and 27.0% in the dry season. Using both microscopy and PCR, the asymptomatic P. falciparum reservoir peaks at the end of the wet season and infections in all age groups constitute the reservoir of malaria infection. At the end of the wet season, spatial heterogeneity in the prevalence and density of P. falciparum infections was observed between the two catchment areas surveyed in Bongo District. These results indicate that if elimination is to succeed, interventions will need to target not just P. falciparum infections in children but also in adults, and be implemented toward the end of the dry season in this area of West Africa.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Seasons

Keywords
Journal Title the american journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28719306
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170718
DCOM- 20170731
LR  - 20170731
IS  - 1476-1645 (Electronic)
IS  - 0002-9637 (Linking)
VI  - 97
IP  - 1
DP  - 2017 Jul
TI  - Seasonal Variation in the Epidemiology of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum
      Infections across Two Catchment Areas in Bongo District, Ghana.
PG  - 199-212
LID - 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0959 [doi]
AB  - Understanding the epidemiology of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections
      is critical for countries to move toward malaria elimination. Using different
      methods for parasite detection, we evaluated how seasonality, spatial location,
      and other factors affect the age-specific epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria in
      Bongo District, Ghana. Asymptomatic prevalence by microscopy decreased
      significantly from 42.5% at the end of the wet to 27.5% at the end of the dry
      season (P &lt; 0.001). Using the 18S rRNA polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), all
      microscopy-negative samples were screened and prevalence of submicroscopic
      infections also decreased significantly from the wet (55.4%) to the dry (20.7%)
      season (P &lt; 0.001). Combining detection methods, 74.4% and 42.5% of the
      population in the wet and dry seasons, respectively, had evidence of a P.
      falciparum infection. Interestingly in those &gt; 20 years of age, we found evidence
      of infection in 64.3% of the population in the wet and 27.0% in the dry season.
      Using both microscopy and PCR, the asymptomatic P. falciparum reservoir peaks at 
      the end of the wet season and infections in all age groups constitute the
      reservoir of malaria infection. At the end of the wet season, spatial
      heterogeneity in the prevalence and density of P. falciparum infections was
      observed between the two catchment areas surveyed in Bongo District. These
      results indicate that if elimination is to succeed, interventions will need to
      target not just P. falciparum infections in children but also in adults, and be
      implemented toward the end of the dry season in this area of West Africa.
FAU - Tiedje, Kathryn E
AU  - Tiedje KE
AD  - Department of Microbiology, New York University, New York, New York.
AD  - School of BioSciences, Bio21 Institute/University of Melbourne, Melbourne,
      Australia.
FAU - Oduro, Abraham R
AU  - Oduro AR
AD  - Navrongo Health Research Center, Navrongo, Ghana.
FAU - Agongo, Godfred
AU  - Agongo G
AD  - Navrongo Health Research Center, Navrongo, Ghana.
FAU - Anyorigiya, Thomas
AU  - Anyorigiya T
AD  - Navrongo Health Research Center, Navrongo, Ghana.
FAU - Azongo, Daniel
AU  - Azongo D
AD  - Navrongo Health Research Center, Navrongo, Ghana.
FAU - Awine, Timothy
AU  - Awine T
AD  - Navrongo Health Research Center, Navrongo, Ghana.
FAU - Ghansah, Anita
AU  - Ghansah A
AD  - Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon,
      Ghana.
FAU - Pascual, Mercedes
AU  - Pascual M
AD  - Santa Fe Institute, Sante Fe, New Mexico.
AD  - Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
FAU - Koram, Kwadwo A
AU  - Koram KA
AD  - Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon,
      Ghana.
FAU - Day, Karen P
AU  - Day KP
AD  - Department of Microbiology, New York University, New York, New York.
AD  - School of BioSciences, Bio21 Institute/University of Melbourne, Melbourne,
      Australia.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PL  - United States
TA  - Am J Trop Med Hyg
JT  - The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
JID - 0370507
SB  - AIM
SB  - IM
MH  - Adult
MH  - Aging
MH  - Child, Preschool
MH  - Female
MH  - Ghana/epidemiology
MH  - Humans
MH  - Infant
MH  - Malaria, Falciparum/*epidemiology/*parasitology
MH  - Male
MH  - Plasmodium falciparum/*physiology
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - Risk Factors
MH  - *Seasons
MH  - Young Adult
PMC - PMC5508908
EDAT- 2017/07/19 06:00
MHDA- 2017/08/02 06:00
CRDT- 2017/07/19 06:00
PMCR- 2018/07/12
AID - 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0959 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jul;97(1):199-212. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0959.