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Widespread Trypanosoma cruzi infection in government working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border: Discordant serology, parasite genotyping and associated vectors.

Abstract Chagas disease, caused by the vector-borne protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly recognized in the southern U.S. Government-owned working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border could be at heightened risk due to prolonged exposure outdoors in habitats with high densities of vectors. We quantified working dog exposure to T. cruzi, characterized parasite strains, and analyzed associated triatomine vectors along the Texas-Mexico border.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28787451
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170808
DCOM- 20170901
LR  - 20170901
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 8
DP  - 2017 Aug
TI  - Widespread Trypanosoma cruzi infection in government working dogs along the
      Texas-Mexico border: Discordant serology, parasite genotyping and associated
      vectors.
PG  - e0005819
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005819 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by the vector-borne protozoan Trypanosoma
      cruzi, is increasingly recognized in the southern U.S. Government-owned working
      dogs along the Texas-Mexico border could be at heightened risk due to prolonged
      exposure outdoors in habitats with high densities of vectors. We quantified
      working dog exposure to T. cruzi, characterized parasite strains, and analyzed
      associated triatomine vectors along the Texas-Mexico border.
      METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In 2015-2016, we sampled government working dogs 
      in five management areas plus a training center in Texas and collected triatomine
      vectors from canine environments. Canine serum was tested for anti-T. cruzi
      antibodies with up to three serological tests including two immunochromatographic
      assays (Stat-Pak and Trypanosoma Detect) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) 
      test. The buffy coat fraction of blood and vector hindguts were tested for T.
      cruzi DNA and parasite discrete typing unit was determined. Overall
      seroprevalence was 7.4 and 18.9% (n = 528) in a conservative versus inclusive
      analysis, respectively, based on classifying weakly reactive samples as negative 
      versus positive. Canines in two western management areas had 2.6-2.8 (95% CI:
      1.0-6.8 p = 0.02-0.04) times greater odds of seropositivity compared to the
      training center. Parasite DNA was detected in three dogs (0.6%), including TcI
      and TcI/TcIV mix. Nine of 20 (45%) T. gerstaeckeri and T. rubida were infected
      with TcI and TcIV; insects analyzed for bloodmeals (n = 11) fed primarily on
      canine (54.5%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Government working dogs have widespread
      exposure to T. cruzi across the Texas-Mexico border. Interpretation of sample
      serostatus was challenged by discordant results across testing platforms and very
      faint serological bands. In the absence of gold standard methodologies,
      epidemiological studies will benefit from presenting a range of results based on 
      different tests/interpretation criteria to encompass uncertainty. Working dogs
      are highly trained in security functions and potential loss of duty from the
      clinical outcomes of infection could affect the work force and have broad
      consequences.
FAU - Meyers, Alyssa C
AU  - Meyers AC
AD  - Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College
      Station, Texas, United States of America.
FAU - Meinders, Marvin
AU  - Meinders M
AD  - Office of Health Affairs, Department of Homeland Security, Washington D.C.,
      United States of America.
FAU - Hamer, Sarah A
AU  - Hamer SA
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4955-048X
AD  - Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College
      Station, Texas, United States of America.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170807
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
RN  - 0 (Antibodies, Protozoan)
RN  - 0 (DNA, Protozoan)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Antibodies, Protozoan/blood
MH  - Chagas Disease/epidemiology/parasitology/*veterinary
MH  - DNA, Protozoan/genetics/isolation & purification
MH  - Dog Diseases/*epidemiology/*parasitology
MH  - Dogs
MH  - Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
MH  - Genotyping Techniques
MH  - Immunochromatography
MH  - Insect Vectors/*parasitology
MH  - Seroepidemiologic Studies
MH  - Texas/epidemiology
MH  - Triatominae/*parasitology
MH  - Trypanosoma cruzi/*classification/genetics/immunology/*isolation & purification
PMC - PMC5560752
EDAT- 2017/08/09 06:00
MHDA- 2017/09/02 06:00
CRDT- 2017/08/09 06:00
PHST- 2017/04/08 [received]
PHST- 2017/07/20 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/08/17 [revised]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005819 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-00495 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Aug 7;11(8):e0005819. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005819.
      eCollection 2017 Aug.