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Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

Abstract Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is shared with humans. This argues for the strong potential of dogs as reservoirs for zoonotic transmission of S. stercoralis to humans and suggests that in order to reduce the exposure of humans to infective S. stercoralis larvae, dogs should be treated for the infection along with their owners.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Polymorphism, Genetic

Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28793306
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170809
DCOM- 20170901
LR  - 20170901
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 8
DP  - 2017 Aug
TI  - Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and
      humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.
PG  - e0005752
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005752 [doi]
AB  - Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the
      nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be
      maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also 
      occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a
      zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host
      specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if
      any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated
      S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia,
      a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms
      derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence 
      polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S.
      stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the
      nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One
      population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted
      to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S.
      stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found
      multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S.
      stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole
      genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent
      multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from
      humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living
      generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to
      earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of
      Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our
      results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of
      Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is
      shared with humans. This argues for the strong potential of dogs as reservoirs
      for zoonotic transmission of S. stercoralis to humans and suggests that in order 
      to reduce the exposure of humans to infective S. stercoralis larvae, dogs should 
      be treated for the infection along with their owners.
FAU - Jaleta, Tegegn G
AU  - Jaleta TG
AD  - Department of Evolutionary Biology, Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental
      Biology, Tubingen, Germany.
AD  - Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of
      Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
FAU - Zhou, Siyu
AU  - Zhou S
AD  - Department of Evolutionary Biology, Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental
      Biology, Tubingen, Germany.
FAU - Bemm, Felix M
AU  - Bemm FM
AD  - Department of Molecular Biology, Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology, 
      Tubingen, Germany.
FAU - Schar, Fabian
AU  - Schar F
AD  - Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health
      Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
AD  - University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
FAU - Khieu, Virak
AU  - Khieu V
AD  - National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Ministry of
      Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
FAU - Muth, Sinuon
AU  - Muth S
AD  - National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Ministry of
      Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
FAU - Odermatt, Peter
AU  - Odermatt P
AD  - Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health
      Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
AD  - University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
FAU - Lok, James B
AU  - Lok JB
AD  - Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of
      Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
FAU - Streit, Adrian
AU  - Streit A
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7838-621X
AD  - Department of Evolutionary Biology, Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental
      Biology, Tubingen, Germany.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170809
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
RN  - 0 (DNA, Helminth)
RN  - 0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
RN  - 0 (DNA, Ribosomal)
RN  - 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)
RN  - EC 1.9.3.1 (Electron Transport Complex IV)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Cambodia/epidemiology
MH  - Cluster Analysis
MH  - DNA, Helminth/chemistry/genetics
MH  - DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry/genetics
MH  - DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry/genetics
MH  - Disease Reservoirs
MH  - Dog Diseases/epidemiology/*parasitology/transmission
MH  - Dogs
MH  - Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics
MH  - Genotype
MH  - Humans
MH  - Molecular Epidemiology
MH  - Phylogeny
MH  - *Polymorphism, Genetic
MH  - RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
MH  - Rural Population
MH  - Sequence Analysis, DNA
MH  - Strongyloides stercoralis/*classification/genetics/*isolation & purification
MH  - Strongyloidiasis/epidemiology/*parasitology/transmission/*veterinary
MH  - Zoonoses/epidemiology/*parasitology/transmission
PMC - PMC5565190
EDAT- 2017/08/10 06:00
MHDA- 2017/09/02 06:00
CRDT- 2017/08/10 06:00
PHST- 2017/04/02 [received]
PHST- 2017/06/26 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/08/21 [revised]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005752 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-00486 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Aug 9;11(8):e0005752. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005752.
      eCollection 2017 Aug.