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Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on otitis media: A review of measurement and interpretation challenges.

Abstract Acute otitis media (AOM) is among the most frequent childhood diseases and is caused by various bacterial and viral etiological agents. In this article, we provide an overview of published studies assessing the impact of higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on AOM. In some instances, reports of PCV impact on complications of AOM have been included. While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) allow for the most precise assessment of vaccine efficacy against AOM, observational studies provide answers to questions regarding the public health value of these vaccines in real-life settings. We discuss the challenges that arise when measuring PCV impact on AOM in observational studies: the local variability of viral and bacterial etiology, differences in case ascertainment, care-seeking behavior, standards of care and diagnosis of AOM (e.g. use of incisions), as well as declining baseline AOM incidence that can already be in place before PCV introduction, and how these factors can impact the results and their interpretation.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

13vCRM

Acute otitis media

Observational studies

PHiD-CV

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

Post-marketing surveillance

Journal Title international journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28802367
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170813
DCOM- 20170907
LR  - 20170907
IS  - 1872-8464 (Electronic)
IS  - 0165-5876 (Linking)
VI  - 100
DP  - 2017 Sep
TI  - Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on otitis media: A review of
      measurement and interpretation challenges.
PG  - 174-182
LID - S0165-5876(17)30322-1 [pii]
LID - 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.07.009 [doi]
AB  - Acute otitis media (AOM) is among the most frequent childhood diseases and is
      caused by various bacterial and viral etiological agents. In this article, we
      provide an overview of published studies assessing the impact of higher-valent
      pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on AOM. In some instances, reports of PCV 
      impact on complications of AOM have been included. While randomized controlled
      trials (RCTs) allow for the most precise assessment of vaccine efficacy against
      AOM, observational studies provide answers to questions regarding the public
      health value of these vaccines in real-life settings. We discuss the challenges
      that arise when measuring PCV impact on AOM in observational studies: the local
      variability of viral and bacterial etiology, differences in case ascertainment,
      care-seeking behavior, standards of care and diagnosis of AOM (e.g. use of
      incisions), as well as declining baseline AOM incidence that can already be in
      place before PCV introduction, and how these factors can impact the results and
      their interpretation.
CI  - Copyright (c) 2017 GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. Published by Elsevier B.V. All
      rights reserved.
FAU - Vojtek, Ivo
AU  - Vojtek I
AD  - GSK, Wavre, Belgium. Electronic address: [email protected]
FAU - Nordgren, Marcus
AU  - Nordgren M
AD  - GSK, Wavre, Belgium.
FAU - Hoet, Bernard
AU  - Hoet B
AD  - GSK, Wavre, Belgium.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
DEP - 20170711
PL  - Ireland
TA  - Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
JT  - International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
JID - 8003603
RN  - 0 (Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine)
SB  - IM
MH  - Child, Preschool
MH  - Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine/*administration & dosage
MH  - Humans
MH  - Incidence
MH  - Infant
MH  - Otitis Media/*microbiology
MH  - Pneumococcal Infections/*prevention & control
MH  - Public Health
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - 13vCRM
OT  - Acute otitis media
OT  - Observational studies
OT  - PHiD-CV
OT  - Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
OT  - Post-marketing surveillance
EDAT- 2017/08/15 06:00
MHDA- 2017/09/08 06:00
CRDT- 2017/08/14 06:00
PHST- 2017/03/03 [received]
PHST- 2017/07/07 [revised]
PHST- 2017/07/08 [accepted]
AID - S0165-5876(17)30322-1 [pii]
AID - 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.07.009 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Sep;100:174-182. doi:
      10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.07.009. Epub 2017 Jul 11.