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Phytochemical analysis and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae) on the bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi and on drug resistant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Abstract Onchocerciasis is one of the tropical neglected diseases (NTDs) caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Control strategies currently in use rely on mass administration of ivermectin, which has marked activity against microfilariae. Furthermore, the development of resistance to ivermectin was observed. Since vaccine and safe macrofilaricidal treatment against onchocerciasis are still lacking, there is an urgent need to discover novel drugs. This study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata on the cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi and the anthelmintic drug resistant strains of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and to determine the phytochemical profiles of the extracts and fractions of the plants.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Caenorhabditis elegans

Onchocerca

Keywords

Acute toxicity

Anthelmintic

Drug resistant strains

Lophira lanceolata

Onchocerca ochengi

Traditional healers

Journal Title bmc complementary and alternative medicine
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28806951
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170815
DCOM- 20170901
LR  - 20170901
IS  - 1472-6882 (Electronic)
IS  - 1472-6882 (Linking)
VI  - 17
IP  - 1
DP  - 2017 Aug 14
TI  - Phytochemical analysis and in vitro anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata
      (Ochnaceae) on the bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi and on drug resistant
      strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
PG  - 404
LID - 10.1186/s12906-017-1904-z [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is one of the tropical neglected diseases (NTDs)
      caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Control strategies currently in use
      rely on mass administration of ivermectin, which has marked activity against
      microfilariae. Furthermore, the development of resistance to ivermectin was
      observed. Since vaccine and safe macrofilaricidal treatment against
      onchocerciasis are still lacking, there is an urgent need to discover novel
      drugs. This study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of
      Lophira lanceolata on the cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi and the anthelmintic
      drug resistant strains of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and to 
      determine the phytochemical profiles of the extracts and fractions of the plants.
      METHODS: Plant was extracted in ethanol or methanol-methylene chloride. O.
      ochengi, C. elegans wild-type and C. elegans drug resistant strains were cultured
      in RPMI-1640 and NGM-agar respectively. Drugs diluted in dimethylsulphoxide/RPMI 
      or M9-Buffer were added in assays and monitored at 48 h and 72 h. Worm viability 
      was determined by using the MTT/formazan colorimetric method. Polyphenol, tannin 
      and flavonoid contents were determined by dosage of gallic acid and rutin. Acute 
      oral toxicity was evaluated using Swiss albino mice. RESULTS: Ethanolic and
      methanolic-methylene chloride extracts killed O. ochengi with LC50 values of
      9.76, 8.05, 6.39 mug/mL and 9.45, 7.95, 6.39 mug/mL respectively for leaves,
      trunk bark and root bark after 72 h. The lowest concentrations required to kill
      50% of the wild-type of C. elegans were 1200 and 1890 mug/mL with ethanolic crude
      extract, 1000 and 2030 mug/mL with MeOH-CH2Cl2 for root bark and trunk bark of L.
      lanceolata, respectively after 72 h. Leave extracts of L. lanceolata are lethal
      to albendazole and ivermectin resistant strains of C. elegans after 72 h.
      Methanol/methylene chloride extracted more metabolites. Additionally, extracts
      could be considered relatively safe. CONCLUSION: Ethanolic and
      methanolic-methylene chloride crude extracts and fractions of L. lanceolata
      showed in vitro anthelmintic activity. The extracts and fractions contained
      polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. The mechanism of action of this
      plant could be different from that of albendazole and ivermectin. These results
      confirm the use of L. lanceolata by traditional healers for the treatment of worm
      infections.
FAU - Kalmobe, Justin
AU  - Kalmobe J
AD  - Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, 
      PO, Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
FAU - Ndjonka, Dieudonne
AU  - Ndjonka D
AD  - Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, 
      PO, Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon. [email protected]
FAU - Boursou, Djafsia
AU  - Boursou D
AD  - Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, 
      PO, Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
FAU - Vildina, Jacqueline Dikti
AU  - Vildina JD
AD  - Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, 
      PO, Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.
FAU - Liebau, Eva
AU  - Liebau E
AD  - Department of Molecular Physiology, Institute for Zoophysiology, Schlossplatz 8, 
      48143, Muenster, Germany.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20170814
PL  - England
TA  - BMC Complement Altern Med
JT  - BMC complementary and alternative medicine
JID - 101088661
RN  - 0 (Anthelmintics)
RN  - 0 (Flavonoids)
RN  - 0 (Plant Extracts)
RN  - 0 (Polyphenols)
RN  - 0 (Saponins)
RN  - 0 (Tannins)
RN  - 70288-86-7 (Ivermectin)
RN  - F4216019LN (Albendazole)
SB  - IM
MH  - Albendazole/pharmacology
MH  - Animals
MH  - Anthelmintics/*pharmacology
MH  - *Caenorhabditis elegans
MH  - Cattle
MH  - Drug Resistance
MH  - Flavonoids/analysis/pharmacology
MH  - Ivermectin/pharmacology
MH  - Mice
MH  - Nematode Infections/*parasitology/veterinary
MH  - Ochnaceae/*chemistry
MH  - *Onchocerca
MH  - Onchocerciasis/parasitology/veterinary
MH  - Phytotherapy
MH  - Plant Bark
MH  - Plant Extracts/chemistry/*pharmacology
MH  - Plant Roots
MH  - Plant Stems
MH  - Polyphenols/analysis/pharmacology
MH  - Saponins/analysis/pharmacology
MH  - Tannins/analysis/pharmacology
PMC - PMC5557511
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Acute toxicity
OT  - Anthelmintic
OT  - Drug resistant strains
OT  - Lophira lanceolata
OT  - Onchocerca ochengi
OT  - Traditional healers
EDAT- 2017/08/16 06:00
MHDA- 2017/09/02 06:00
CRDT- 2017/08/16 06:00
PHST- 2017/04/13 [received]
PHST- 2017/08/02 [accepted]
AID - 10.1186/s12906-017-1904-z [doi]
AID - 10.1186/s12906-017-1904-z [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Aug 14;17(1):404. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1904-z.