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Threonine deficiency decreased intestinal immunity and aggravated inflammation associated with NF-κB and target of rapamycin signalling pathways in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99-21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

4E-BP1 eIF4E-binding protein 1

ACP acid phosphatase

C complement

DI distal intestine

FE feed efficiency

GOT glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase

GPT glutamate-puruvate transaminase

IKK IκB kinase

INFγ interferon γ

IκBα inhibitor of κBα

LA lysozyme activities

LEAP liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide

MI mid intestine

PAC plasma ammonia content

PI proximal intestine

PWG percentage weight gain

S6K1 ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1

SGR special growth rate

TGF transforming growth factor

TOR target of rapamycin

Immunity

Inflammation

Intestine

Juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

NF-κB and target of rapamycin signalling

Threonine deficiency

Journal Title the british journal of nutrition
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28820083
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170818
DCOM- 20170825
LR  - 20170825
IS  - 1475-2662 (Electronic)
IS  - 0007-1145 (Linking)
VI  - 118
IP  - 2
DP  - 2017 Jul
TI  - Threonine deficiency decreased intestinal immunity and aggravated inflammation
      associated with NF-kappaB and target of rapamycin signalling pathways in juvenile
      grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.
PG  - 92-108
LID - 10.1017/S0007114517001830 [doi]
AB  - This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal
      immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous
      semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3.99-21.66 g
      threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged 
      with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum
      threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish
      against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal
      intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and
      IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the
      transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A,
      LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and beta-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P&lt;0.05); (2)
      could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta,
      IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-kappaB signalling; (3)
      could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth
      factor (TGF)-beta1, TGF-beta2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels
      partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific
      growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum
      threonine requirements were estimated to be 14.53 g threonine/kg diet (4.48 g
      threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4.64 g threonine/100 g
      protein) and 15.17 g threonine/kg diet (4.68 g threonine/100 g protein),
      respectively.
FAU - Dong, Yu-Wen
AU  - Dong YW
AD  - 1Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu
      611130,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Jiang, Wei-Dan
AU  - Jiang WD
AD  - 1Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu
      611130,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Liu, Yang
AU  - Liu Y
AD  - 1Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu
      611130,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Wu, Pei
AU  - Wu P
AD  - 1Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu
      611130,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Jiang, Jun
AU  - Jiang J
AD  - 1Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu
      611130,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Kuang, Sheng-Yao
AU  - Kuang SY
AD  - 4Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Academy of Animal Science,Chengdu
      610066,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Tang, Ling
AU  - Tang L
AD  - 4Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Academy of Animal Science,Chengdu
      610066,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Tang, Wu-Neng
AU  - Tang WN
AD  - 4Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Academy of Animal Science,Chengdu
      610066,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Zhang, Yong-An
AU  - Zhang YA
AD  - 5Institute of Hydrobiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Wuhan 430072,People's
      Republic of China.
FAU - Zhou, Xiao-Qiu
AU  - Zhou XQ
AD  - 1Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu
      611130,People's Republic of China.
FAU - Feng, Lin
AU  - Feng L
AD  - 1Animal Nutrition Institute,Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu
      611130,People's Republic of China.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PL  - England
TA  - Br J Nutr
JT  - The British journal of nutrition
JID - 0372547
RN  - 0 (Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides)
RN  - 0 (Blood Proteins)
RN  - 0 (Cytokines)
RN  - 0 (Fish Proteins)
RN  - 0 (Hepcidins)
RN  - 0 (Immunoglobulin M)
RN  - 0 (NF-kappa B)
RN  - 0 (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2, human)
RN  - 2ZD004190S (Threonine)
RN  - EC 2.7.1.1 (TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases)
RN  - EC 3.2.1.17 (Muramidase)
SB  - IM
MH  - Aeromonas hydrophila
MH  - Animals
MH  - Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/genetics
MH  - Blood Proteins
MH  - Carps/immunology/*microbiology
MH  - Cytokines/genetics/metabolism
MH  - Diet/veterinary
MH  - Down-Regulation/drug effects
MH  - Enteritis/veterinary
MH  - Fish Diseases/immunology/*microbiology
MH  - Fish Proteins/genetics
MH  - Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/*veterinary
MH  - Hepcidins
MH  - Immunoglobulin M
MH  - Intestines/enzymology/*immunology
MH  - Muramidase/metabolism
MH  - NF-kappa B/metabolism
MH  - Signal Transduction/physiology
MH  - TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
MH  - Threonine/administration &amp; dosage/*deficiency
MH  - Up-Regulation/drug effects
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - 4E-BP1 eIF4E-binding protein 1
OT  - ACP acid phosphatase
OT  - C complement
OT  - DI distal intestine
OT  - FE feed efficiency
OT  - GOT glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase
OT  - GPT glutamate-puruvate transaminase
OT  - IKK IkappaB kinase
OT  - INFgamma interferon gamma
OT  - IkappaBalpha inhibitor of kappaBalpha
OT  - LA lysozyme activities
OT  - LEAP liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide
OT  - MI mid intestine
OT  - PAC plasma ammonia content
OT  - PI proximal intestine
OT  - PWG percentage weight gain
OT  - S6K1 ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1
OT  - SGR special growth rate
OT  - TGF transforming growth factor
OT  - TOR target of rapamycin
OT  - Immunity
OT  - Inflammation
OT  - Intestine
OT  - Juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
OT  - NF-kappaB and target of rapamycin signalling
OT  - Threonine deficiency
EDAT- 2017/08/19 06:00
MHDA- 2017/08/26 06:00
CRDT- 2017/08/19 06:00
AID - S0007114517001830 [pii]
AID - 10.1017/S0007114517001830 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Br J Nutr. 2017 Jul;118(2):92-108. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001830.