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Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine, Withdrawal of Type 2 Oral Polio Vaccine, and Routine Immunization Strengthening in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

Abstract The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced the global incidence of polio by 99% and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3 countries. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (Endgame Plan) was developed to end polio disease. Key elements of the endgame plan include strengthening immunization systems using polio assets, introducing inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and replacing trivalent oral polio vaccine with bivalent oral polio vaccine ("the switch"). Although coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) with the third dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis antigens (DTP3) was ≥90% in 14 countries in 2015, DTP3 coverage in EMR dropped from 86% in 2010 to 80% in 2015 due to civil disorder in multiple countries. To strengthen their immunization systems, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Somalia developed draft plans to integrate Polio Eradication Initiative assets, staff, structure, and activities with their Expanded Programmes on Immunization, particularly in high-risk districts and regions. Between 2014 and 2016, 11 EMR countries introduced IPV in their routine immunization program, including all of the countries at highest risk for polio transmission (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen). As a result, by the end of 2016 all EMR countries were using IPV except Egypt, where introduction of IPV was delayed by a global shortage. The switch was successfully implemented in EMR due to the motivation, engagement, and cooperation of immunization staff and decision makers across all national levels. Moreover, the switch succeeded because of the ability of even the immunization systems operating under hardship conditions of conflict to absorb the switch activities.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Disease Eradication

Immunization Programs

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated

Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral

Keywords

inactivated polio vaccine

routine immunization strengthening

switch (the switch”)

tOPV-bOPV

Journal Title the journal of infectious diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 28838199
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DA  - 20170825
DCOM- 20170911
LR  - 20170911
IS  - 1537-6613 (Electronic)
IS  - 0022-1899 (Linking)
VI  - 216
IP  - suppl_1
DP  - 2017 Jul 01
TI  - Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine, Withdrawal of Type 2 Oral Polio
      Vaccine, and Routine Immunization Strengthening in the Eastern Mediterranean
      Region.
PG  - S86-S93
LID - 10.1093/infdis/jix133 [doi]
AB  - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced the global incidence of polio
      by 99% and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3 countries.
      The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (Endgame Plan) was
      developed to end polio disease. Key elements of the endgame plan include
      strengthening immunization systems using polio assets, introducing inactivated
      polio vaccine (IPV), and replacing trivalent oral polio vaccine with bivalent
      oral polio vaccine ("the switch"). Although coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean
      Region (EMR) with the third dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, and
      pertussis antigens (DTP3) was >/=90% in 14 countries in 2015, DTP3 coverage in
      EMR dropped from 86% in 2010 to 80% in 2015 due to civil disorder in multiple
      countries. To strengthen their immunization systems, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and
      Somalia developed draft plans to integrate Polio Eradication Initiative assets,
      staff, structure, and activities with their Expanded Programmes on Immunization, 
      particularly in high-risk districts and regions. Between 2014 and 2016, 11 EMR
      countries introduced IPV in their routine immunization program, including all of 
      the countries at highest risk for polio transmission (Afghanistan, Pakistan,
      Somalia, and Yemen). As a result, by the end of 2016 all EMR countries were using
      IPV except Egypt, where introduction of IPV was delayed by a global shortage. The
      switch was successfully implemented in EMR due to the motivation, engagement, and
      cooperation of immunization staff and decision makers across all national levels.
      Moreover, the switch succeeded because of the ability of even the immunization
      systems operating under hardship conditions of conflict to absorb the switch
      activities.
CI  - (c) The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious
      Diseases Society of America.
FAU - Fahmy, Kamal
AU  - Fahmy K
AD  - Eastern Mediterranean Region Office, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt.
FAU - Hampton, Lee M
AU  - Hampton LM
AD  - Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
      Atlanta.
FAU - Langar, Houda
AU  - Langar H
AD  - Eastern Mediterranean Region Office, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt.
FAU - Patel, Manish
AU  - Patel M
AD  - Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, Georgia.
FAU - Mir, Tahir
AU  - Mir T
AD  - Eastern Mediterranean Region Office, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt.
FAU - Soloman, Chandrasegarar
AU  - Soloman C
AD  - Middle East and North Africa Regional Office, United Nations Children's Fund
      (UNICEF), Amman, Jordan.
FAU - Hasman, Andreas
AU  - Hasman A
AD  - South Asian Regional Office, UNICEF Kathmandu, Nepal.
FAU - Yusuf, Nasir
AU  - Yusuf N
AD  - East and South Africa Regional Office, UNICEFNairobi, Kenya.
FAU - Teleb, Nadia
AU  - Teleb N
AD  - Eastern Mediterranean Region Office, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PL  - United States
TA  - J Infect Dis
JT  - The Journal of infectious diseases
JID - 0413675
RN  - 0 (Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines)
RN  - 0 (Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated)
RN  - 0 (Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral)
SB  - AIM
SB  - IM
MH  - Afghanistan
MH  - Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines
MH  - *Disease Eradication/methods/organization & administration
MH  - Global Health
MH  - Humans
MH  - *Immunization Programs/methods/organization & administration/statistics &
      numerical data
MH  - Immunization Schedule
MH  - Mediterranean Region
MH  - Pakistan
MH  - Poliomyelitis/*prevention & control
MH  - *Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/administration & dosage/therapeutic use
MH  - *Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/administration & dosage/therapeutic use
MH  - Somalia
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - inactivated polio vaccine
OT  - routine immunization strengthening
OT  - switch ("the switch")
OT  - tOPV-bOPV
EDAT- 2017/08/26 06:00
MHDA- 2017/09/12 06:00
CRDT- 2017/08/26 06:00
PHST- 2016/10/16 [received]
PHST- 2017/03/21 [accepted]
AID - 3935077 [pii]
AID - 10.1093/infdis/jix133 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 1;216(suppl_1):S86-S93. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix133.