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More than the eyes can see: The worrying scenario of canine leishmaniasis in the Brazilian side of the triple border.

Abstract A cross-sectional epidemiological study in the extreme-west of the state of Paraná was carried out to access the prevalence, distribution, and risk variables of canine Visceral Leishmaniases (cVL). This study was conducted in three areas, two cities of far west of Parana state: Foz do Iguaçu (FI) and Santa Terezinha de Itaipu (STI), and along two transects between these two municipalities. To sample the entire urban area, the cities (FI and STI) were divided into a grid of squares of 400 m2 (patch). Among the 526 patches, 123 in FI, 40 in the transects and 33 in STI were selected according to the 'worst scenario' criterion. In the transect areas, in each 0.86 km five dogs from houses were surveyed to leishmaniasis. In each patch, blood of five dogs from houses (and from neighborhood when necessary) in the areas that seemed to be the most appropriate for the proliferation of vector were surveyed. The infection of the dogs by cVL were assessed using two serological tests were used (cELISA and TR-DPP®), and, for those seropositive for both methods, the PCR method were used. Moreover, dogs presenting clinical signs or cutaneous lesions were sampled to PCR. The identification of Leishmania species was confirmed using PCR-RFLP followed by DNA sequencing. Micro, meso and macro scale environmental variables were also surveyed and statistically analyzed. The prevalence rate Leishmania infantum was 23.8% in FI, 4.7% in STI and 9.1% in the transects areas. Among the extrinsic variables analysed, the number of vectors and the presence of infected dogs in neighbouring were positively correlated with the occurrence of infected dogs. Dog size was positively correlated with cVL infection, while the quality of the dog's nutrition affected cVL negatively. As for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the first registry of dogs infected with L. braziliensis in the region shows that there is potential for transmission in peri-urban areas, since environmental conditions allow the proliferation of vectors capable of transmitting this species of parasite. cVL is widely spread in FI, with high prevalence. This supports the hypothesis that the parasite has been present in the region for longer than previously believed, despite the fact that the presence of leishmaniais in the region has only been recognized recently. It is important to control the population of dogs infected with L. infantum (parasite and non-antibodies) to prevent the spread of the disease to other dogs and also to people in the region.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29232388
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
LR  - 20171212
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 12
DP  - 2017
TI  - More than the eyes can see: The worrying scenario of canine leishmaniasis in the 
      Brazilian side of the triple border.
PG  - e0189182
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189182 [doi]
AB  - A cross-sectional epidemiological study in the extreme-west of the state of
      Parana was carried out to access the prevalence, distribution, and risk variables
      of canine Visceral Leishmaniases (cVL). This study was conducted in three areas, 
      two cities of far west of Parana state: Foz do Iguacu (FI) and Santa Terezinha de
      Itaipu (STI), and along two transects between these two municipalities. To sample
      the entire urban area, the cities (FI and STI) were divided into a grid of
      squares of 400 m2 (patch). Among the 526 patches, 123 in FI, 40 in the transects 
      and 33 in STI were selected according to the 'worst scenario' criterion. In the
      transect areas, in each 0.86 km five dogs from houses were surveyed to
      leishmaniasis. In each patch, blood of five dogs from houses (and from
      neighborhood when necessary) in the areas that seemed to be the most appropriate 
      for the proliferation of vector were surveyed. The infection of the dogs by cVL
      were assessed using two serological tests were used (cELISA and TR-DPP(R)), and, 
      for those seropositive for both methods, the PCR method were used. Moreover, dogs
      presenting clinical signs or cutaneous lesions were sampled to PCR. The
      identification of Leishmania species was confirmed using PCR-RFLP followed by DNA
      sequencing. Micro, meso and macro scale environmental variables were also
      surveyed and statistically analyzed. The prevalence rate Leishmania infantum was 
      23.8% in FI, 4.7% in STI and 9.1% in the transects areas. Among the extrinsic
      variables analysed, the number of vectors and the presence of infected dogs in
      neighbouring were positively correlated with the occurrence of infected dogs. Dog
      size was positively correlated with cVL infection, while the quality of the dog's
      nutrition affected cVL negatively. As for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the first
      registry of dogs infected with L. braziliensis in the region shows that there is 
      potential for transmission in peri-urban areas, since environmental conditions
      allow the proliferation of vectors capable of transmitting this species of
      parasite. cVL is widely spread in FI, with high prevalence. This supports the
      hypothesis that the parasite has been present in the region for longer than
      previously believed, despite the fact that the presence of leishmaniais in the
      region has only been recognized recently. It is important to control the
      population of dogs infected with L. infantum (parasite and non-antibodies) to
      prevent the spread of the disease to other dogs and also to people in the region.
FAU - Thomaz Soccol, Vanete
AU  - Thomaz Soccol V
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9301-541X
AD  - UFPR-Graduate Program in Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal
      University of Parana, Rua Francisco H dos Santos, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba,
      Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi
AU  - Pasquali AKS
AD  - UFPR-Graduate Program in Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal
      University of Parana, Rua Francisco H dos Santos, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba,
      Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Pozzolo, Eliane Maria
AU  - Pozzolo EM
AD  - SESA- Secretary of Health of the State of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil and
      Ninth Health Region, Foz do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Leandro, Andre de Souza
AU  - Leandro AS
AD  - Zoonosis Control Center-CCZ, Foz do Iguacu Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Chiyo, Luciana
AU  - Chiyo L
AD  - Zoonosis Control Center-CCZ, Foz do Iguacu Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Baggio, Rafael Antunes
AU  - Baggio RA
AD  - UFPR-Graduate Program in Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal
      University of Parana, Rua Francisco H dos Santos, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba,
      Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Michaliszyn, Mario Sergio
AU  - Michaliszyn MS
AD  - Graduate Program in Environmental Engineering, Positive University, Curitiba,
      Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Silva, Carlos
AU  - Silva C
AD  - Vigilancia Sanitaria, Santa Terezinha de Itaipu, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Cubas, Patricia Hoerner
AU  - Cubas PH
AD  - Zoonosis Control Center-CCZ, Foz do Iguacu Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Peterlle, Ricardo
AU  - Peterlle R
AD  - UFPR- Departamento de Saude Comunitaria, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Paz, Otacilio Lopes de Souza
AU  - Paz OLS
AD  - Laboratorio de Analise de Padroes Espaciais e Cartografia Tematica (LAPE-CT),
      Laboratorio Pedagogico de Geografia (LABOGEO), Universidade Federal do Parana,
      Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Belmonte, Ivana Lucia
AU  - Belmonte IL
AD  - SESA- Secretary of Health of the State of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil and
      Ninth Health Region, Foz do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Bisetto-Junior, Alceu
AU  - Bisetto-Junior A
AD  - SESA- Secretary of Health of the State of Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil and
      Ninth Health Region, Foz do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20171212
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
EDAT- 2017/12/13 06:00
MHDA- 2017/12/13 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/13 06:00
PHST- 2017/09/17 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/11/21 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/12/13 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/12/13 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/12/13 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189182 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-17-33809 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Dec 12;12(12):e0189182. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189182.
      eCollection 2017.