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Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry.

Abstract Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin. Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed, particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins, hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with more traditional DNA-based methods. We also demonstrate the potential of synthetic peptide standards to estimate relative amounts of hemoglobin acquired when insects feed on multiple blood sources. These LC-MS/MS methods can contribute to developing Ecohealth control strategies for Chagas disease transmission and can be applied to other arthropod disease vectors.
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PMID- 29232402
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
LR  - 20171212
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 12
DP  - 2017
TI  - Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry.
PG  - e0189647
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189647 [doi]
AB  - Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood
      feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) insects, also known as kissing bugs, 
      and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions
      of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas
      disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), is
      deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and
      enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin.
      Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in
      understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of
      other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management
      decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of 
      effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, 
      are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed,
      particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk
      of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using
      liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify
      host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood
      control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata
      insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins,
      hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through
      geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and
      examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as
      at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first
      study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify
      blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with
      more traditional DNA-based methods. We also demonstrate the potential of
      synthetic peptide standards to estimate relative amounts of hemoglobin acquired
      when insects feed on multiple blood sources. These LC-MS/MS methods can
      contribute to developing Ecohealth control strategies for Chagas disease
      transmission and can be applied to other arthropod disease vectors.
FAU - Keller, Judith I
AU  - Keller JI
AD  - Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States 
      of America.
FAU - Ballif, Bryan A
AU  - Ballif BA
AD  - Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States 
      of America.
FAU - St Clair, Riley M
AU  - St Clair RM
AD  - Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States 
      of America.
FAU - Vincent, James J
AU  - Vincent JJ
AD  - Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States 
      of America.
FAU - Monroy, M Carlota
AU  - Monroy MC
AD  - Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States 
      of America.
AD  - Laboratorio de Entomologia Aplicada y Parasitologia, Escuela de Biologia,
      Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala,
      Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala.
FAU - Stevens, Lori
AU  - Stevens L
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3847-5979
AD  - Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States 
      of America.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20171212
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
EDAT- 2017/12/13 06:00
MHDA- 2017/12/13 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/13 06:00
PHST- 2017/09/07 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/11/29 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/12/13 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/12/13 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/12/13 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189647 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-17-32816 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Dec 12;12(12):e0189647. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189647.
      eCollection 2017.