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High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) on eastern Hawai'i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp.).

Abstract The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the USA. Rats (Rattus spp.) are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis (3,148) were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433) of rats inspected had lung lobe(s) (mostly upper right) which appeared granular indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545) were infected with adult worms, but 93.9% (512/545) of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that larger (older) rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging zoonosis is greater than previously thought.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29252992
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180108
LR  - 20180108
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 12
DP  - 2017
TI  - High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) on eastern Hawai'i 
      Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats
      (Rattus spp.).
PG  - e0189458
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189458 [doi]
AB  - The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the
      etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i,
      particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the 
      USA. Rats (Rattus spp.) are the definitive hosts while gastropods are
      intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A.
      cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a
      blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection
      in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the
      South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis 
      (3,148) were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus
      rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of 
      this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433) of rats
      inspected had lung lobe(s) (mostly upper right) which appeared granular
      indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the
      lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545) were infected with adult worms, but
      93.9% (512/545) of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on
      presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR
      analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with
      increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation 
      between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that
      larger (older) rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or
      regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of
      A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for
      concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging
      zoonosis is greater than previously thought.
FAU - Jarvi, Susan I
AU  - Jarvi SI
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9824-0509
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - Quarta, Stefano
AU  - Quarta S
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - Jacquier, Steven
AU  - Jacquier S
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - Howe, Kathleen
AU  - Howe K
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - Bicakci, Deniz
AU  - Bicakci D
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - Dasalla, Crystal
AU  - Dasalla C
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - Lovesy, Noelle
AU  - Lovesy N
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - Snook, Kirsten
AU  - Snook K
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - McHugh, Robert
AU  - McHugh R
AD  - Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy,
      University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.
FAU - Niebuhr, Chris N
AU  - Niebuhr CN
AD  - USDA-APHIS-WS National Wildlife Research Center, Hawai'i Field Station, Hilo,
      Hawaii, United States of America.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20171218
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
RN  - Angiostrongyliasis
SB  - IM
MH  - Angiostrongylus cantonensis/*physiology
MH  - Animals
MH  - Female
MH  - Geography
MH  - Hawaii/epidemiology
MH  - Islands
MH  - Life Cycle Stages
MH  - Linear Models
MH  - Male
MH  - Prevalence
MH  - Pulmonary Artery/parasitology
MH  - Rats/*parasitology
MH  - Strongylida Infections/epidemiology/*veterinary
PMC - PMC5734720
EDAT- 2017/12/19 06:00
MHDA- 2018/01/09 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/19 06:00
PHST- 2017/08/07 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/11/28 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/12/19 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/12/19 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/01/09 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189458 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-17-29327 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Dec 18;12(12):e0189458. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189458.
      eCollection 2017.