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Incidence and progression of myopia and associated factors in urban school children in Delhi: The North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).

Abstract To evaluate the incidence and progression of myopia and factors associated with progression of myopia in school going children in Delhi.
PMID
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Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).

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Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29253002
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180108
LR  - 20180108
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 12
DP  - 2017
TI  - Incidence and progression of myopia and associated factors in urban school
      children in Delhi: The North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).
PG  - e0189774
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189774 [doi]
AB  - AIM: To evaluate the incidence and progression of myopia and factors associated
      with progression of myopia in school going children in Delhi. METHODS:
      Prospective longitudinal study of 10,000 school children aged 5 to 15 years
      screened after an interval of 1 year to identify new myopes (Spherical
      Equivalent</= -0.5D) and progression of myopia in previously diagnosed myopic
      children. Association between risk factors and progression was analyzed using
      adjusted odds ratio. RESULTS: Of the 9,616 children re-screened (97.3% coverage),
      annual incidence of myopia was 3.4%with mean dioptric change of -1.09 +/- 0.55.
      There was a significant higher incidence of myopia in younger children compared
      to older children (P = 0.012) and among girls compared to boys (P = 0.002).
      Progression was observed in 49.2%children with mean dioptric change of -0.27 +/- 
      0.42 diopters. The demographic and behavioral risk factors were analyzed for
      children with progression (n = 629) and adjusted odds ratio values were
      estimated. Hours of reading-writing/week (p<0.001), use of computers/ video games
      (P<0.001) and watching television (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for
      progression of myopia. Outdoor activities / time spent outdoors> 2 hours in a day
      were protective with an inverse association with progression of myopia (P<
      0.001). CONCLUSION: Myopia is an important health issue in India and is
      associated with long hours of reading and screen time with use of computers and
      video games. An annual eye vision screening should be conducted, and outdoor
      activities be promoted to prevent the increase of myopia among school children.
FAU - Saxena, Rohit
AU  - Saxena R
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8660-8062
AD  - Department of Ophthalmology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic Sciences,
      All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
FAU - Vashist, Praveen
AU  - Vashist P
AD  - Department of Community Ophthalmology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic
      Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
FAU - Tandon, Radhika
AU  - Tandon R
AD  - Department of Ophthalmology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic Sciences,
      All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
FAU - Pandey, Ravindra M
AU  - Pandey RM
AD  - Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 
      India.
FAU - Bhardawaj, Amit
AU  - Bhardawaj A
AD  - Department of Community Ophthalmology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic
      Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
FAU - Gupta, Vivek
AU  - Gupta V
AD  - Department of Community Ophthalmology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic
      Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
FAU - Menon, Vimala
AU  - Menon V
AD  - Department of Ophthalmology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Center for Ophthalmic Sciences,
      All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20171218
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
SB  - IM
MH  - Adolescent
MH  - Child
MH  - Child, Preschool
MH  - Computers
MH  - Curriculum
MH  - Disease Progression
MH  - Female
MH  - Health Behavior
MH  - Humans
MH  - Incidence
MH  - India/epidemiology
MH  - Longitudinal Studies
MH  - Male
MH  - Myopia/*diagnosis/*epidemiology
MH  - Odds Ratio
MH  - Prospective Studies
MH  - Refraction, Ocular
MH  - Refractive Errors
MH  - Risk Factors
MH  - Surveys and Questionnaires
MH  - Video Games
MH  - Vision, Ocular
PMC - PMC5734754
EDAT- 2017/12/19 06:00
MHDA- 2018/01/09 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/19 06:00
PHST- 2017/05/17 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/11/08 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/12/19 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/12/19 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/01/09 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189774 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-17-19004 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2017 Dec 18;12(12):e0189774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189774.
      eCollection 2017.