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Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up: cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort.

Abstract Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico) disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill response and clean-up.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title the lancet. public health
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29253441
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
LR  - 20171218
IS  - 2468-2667 (Electronic)
VI  - 2
IP  - 12
DP  - 2017 Dec
TI  - Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up:
      cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort.
PG  - e560-e567
LID - S2468-2667(17)30194-9 [pii]
LID - 10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30194-9 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills
      but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up
      experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf
      of Mexico) disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill
      response and clean-up. METHODS: We used data from the Gulf Long-term Follow-up
      Study, a cohort of workers and volunteers involved in oil spill clean-up after
      the Deepwater Horizon disaster. We included 8968 workers (hired after completing 
      training for oil spill response and clean-up) and 2225 non-workers (completed
      training but were not hired) who completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and
      four-item Primary Care PTSD Screen to assess for probable depression and
      post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators. Participants were recruited
      between March 28, 2011, and March 29, 2013. The mental health indicators were
      assessed at home visits done between May 12, 2011, and May 15, 2013. We used
      regression models to analyse the effect of potentially stressful job experiences,
      job type, and total hydrocarbon exposure on mental health indicators. FINDINGS:
      Oil spill response and clean-up work was associated with increased prevalence of 
      depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.37) and PTSD (PR 1.35, 95% 
      CI 1.07-1.71). Among workers, individuals who reported smelling oil, dispersants,
      or cleaning chemicals had an elevated prevalence of depression (1.56, 1.37-1.78) 
      and PTSD (2.25, 1.71-2.96). Stopping work because of the heat was also associated
      with depression (1.37, 1.23-1.53) and PTSD (1.41, 1.15-1.74), as was working as a
      commercial fisherman before the spill (1.38, 1.21-1.57; and 2.01, 1.58-2.55,
      respectively). An increase in exposure to total hydrocarbons appeared to be
      associated with depression and PTSD, but after taking into account oil spill job 
      experiences, only the association between the highest amount of total
      hydrocarbons and PTSD remained (1.75, 1.11-2.76). INTERPRETATION: Oil spill
      clean-up workers with high amounts of total hydrocarbon exposure or potentially
      stressful job experiences had an increased prevalence of depression and PTSD.
      These findings provide evidence that response and clean-up work is associated
      with adverse psychological effects and suggest the need for mental health
      services both before and after the event. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health 
      (NIH) Common Fund and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National
      Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
CI  - Copyright (c) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open
      Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All
      rights reserved.
FAU - Kwok, Richard K
AU  - Kwok RK
AD  - Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,
      National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research 
      Triangle Park, NC, USA. Electronic address: [email protected]
FAU - McGrath, John A
AU  - McGrath JA
AD  - Social & Scientific Systems Inc, Durham, NC, USA.
FAU - Lowe, Sarah R
AU  - Lowe SR
AD  - Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ, USA.
FAU - Engel, Lawrence S
AU  - Engel LS
AD  - Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel
      Hill, NC, USA.
FAU - Jackson, W Braxton Nd
AU  - Jackson WB Nd
AD  - Social & Scientific Systems Inc, Durham, NC, USA.
FAU - Curry, Matthew D
AU  - Curry MD
AD  - Social & Scientific Systems Inc, Durham, NC, USA.
FAU - Payne, Julianne
AU  - Payne J
AD  - RTI International, Durham, NC, USA.
FAU - Galea, Sandro
AU  - Galea S
AD  - School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.
FAU - Sandler, Dale P
AU  - Sandler DP
AD  - Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,
      National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research 
      Triangle Park, NC, USA.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20171027
PL  - England
TA  - Lancet Public Health
JT  - The Lancet. Public health
JID - 101699003
EDAT- 2017/12/19 06:00
MHDA- 2017/12/19 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/19 06:00
PHST- 2017/06/09 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/09/19 00:00 [revised]
PHST- 2017/09/27 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2017/12/19 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/12/19 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/12/19 06:00 [medline]
AID - S2468-2667(17)30194-9 [pii]
AID - 10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30194-9 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Lancet Public Health. 2017 Dec;2(12):e560-e567. doi:
      10.1016/S2468-2667(17)30194-9. Epub 2017 Oct 27.