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Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus from European-breed lambs to Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

Abstract Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus of the genus Phlebovirus that is highly pathogenic to ruminants and humans. The disease is currently confined to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but globalization and climate change may facilitate introductions of the virus into currently unaffected areas via infected animals or mosquitoes. The consequences of such an introduction will depend on environmental factors, the availability of susceptible ruminants and the capacity of local mosquitoes to transmit the virus. We have previously demonstrated that lambs native to the Netherlands are highly susceptible to RVFV and we here report the vector competence of Culex (Cx.) pipiens, the most abundant and widespread mosquito species in the country. Vector competence was first determined after artificial blood feeding of laboratory-reared mosquitoes using the attenuated Clone 13 strain. Subsequently, experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs were performed. Finally, the transmission of RVFV from viremic lambs to mosquitoes was studied.
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29281642
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Data-Review
LR  - 20180109
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 11
IP  - 12
DP  - 2017 Dec
TI  - Transmission of Rift Valley fever virus from European-breed lambs to Culex
      pipiens mosquitoes.
PG  - e0006145
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006145 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus of the 
      genus Phlebovirus that is highly pathogenic to ruminants and humans. The disease 
      is currently confined to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but globalization and 
      climate change may facilitate introductions of the virus into currently
      unaffected areas via infected animals or mosquitoes. The consequences of such an 
      introduction will depend on environmental factors, the availability of
      susceptible ruminants and the capacity of local mosquitoes to transmit the virus.
      We have previously demonstrated that lambs native to the Netherlands are highly
      susceptible to RVFV and we here report the vector competence of Culex (Cx.)
      pipiens, the most abundant and widespread mosquito species in the country. Vector
      competence was first determined after artificial blood feeding of
      laboratory-reared mosquitoes using the attenuated Clone 13 strain. Subsequently, 
      experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs 
      were performed. Finally, the transmission of RVFV from viremic lambs to
      mosquitoes was studied. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Artificial feeding experiments using 
      Clone 13 demonstrated that indigenous, laboratory-reared Cx. pipiens mosquitoes
      are susceptible to RVFV and that the virus can be transmitted via their saliva.
      Experiments with wild-type RVFV and mosquitoes hatched from field-collected eggs 
      confirmed the vector competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands.
      To subsequently investigate transmission of the virus under more natural
      conditions, mosquitoes were allowed to feed on RVFV-infected lambs during the
      viremic period. We found that RVFV is efficiently transmitted from lambs to
      mosquitoes, although transmission was restricted to peak viremia. Interestingly, 
      in the mosquito-exposed skin samples, replication of RVFV was detected in
      previously unrecognized target cells. SIGNIFICANCE: We here report the vector
      competence of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from the Netherlands for RVFV. Both
      laboratory-reared mosquitoes and well as those hatched from field-collected eggs 
      were found to be competent vectors. Moreover, RVFV was transmitted efficiently
      from indigenous lambs to mosquitoes, although the duration of host infectivity
      was found to be shorter than previously assumed. Interestingly, analysis of
      mosquito-exposed skin samples revealed previously unidentified target cells of
      the virus. Our findings underscore the value of including natural target species 
      in vector competence experiments.
FAU - Vloet, Rianka P M
AU  - Vloet RPM
AD  - Department of Virology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, the
      Netherlands.
FAU - Vogels, Chantal B F
AU  - Vogels CBF
AD  - Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
FAU - Koenraadt, Constantianus J M
AU  - Koenraadt CJM
AD  - Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
FAU - Pijlman, Gorben P
AU  - Pijlman GP
AD  - Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
FAU - Eiden, Martin
AU  - Eiden M
AD  - Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut,
      Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.
FAU - Gonzales, Jose L
AU  - Gonzales JL
AD  - Department of Bacteriology and Epidemiology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research,
      Lelystad, the Netherlands.
FAU - van Keulen, Lucien J M
AU  - van Keulen LJM
AD  - Department of Virology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, the
      Netherlands.
FAU - Wichgers Schreur, Paul J
AU  - Wichgers Schreur PJ
AD  - Department of Virology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, the
      Netherlands.
FAU - Kortekaas, Jeroen
AU  - Kortekaas J
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0329-0176
AD  - Department of Virology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, the
      Netherlands.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20171227
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
EDAT- 2017/12/28 06:00
MHDA- 2017/12/28 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/28 06:00
PHST- 2017/04/10 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/12/01 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2018/01/09 00:00 [revised]
PHST- 2017/12/28 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/12/28 06:00 [medline]
PHST- 2017/12/28 06:00 [entrez]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006145 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-00546 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Dec 27;11(12):e0006145. doi:
      10.1371/journal.pntd.0006145. eCollection 2017 Dec.