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Neurosteroids and Ischemic Stroke: Progesterone a Promising Agent in Reducing the Brain Injury in Ischemic Stroke.

Abstract Progesterone (P4), a well-known neurosteroid, is produced by ovaries and placenta in females and by adrenal glands in both sexes. Progesterone is also synthesized by central nervous system (CNS) tissues to perform various vital neurological functions in the brain. Apart from performing crucial reproductive functions, it also plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis, regeneration, cognition, mood, inflammation, and myelination in the CNS. A substantial body of experimental evidence from animal models documents the neuroprotective role of P4 in various CNS injury models, including ischemic stroke. Extensive data have revealed that P4 elicits neuroprotection through multiple mechanisms and systems in an integrated manner to prevent neuronal and glial damage, thus reducing mortality and morbidity. Progesterone has been described as safe for use at the clinical level through different routes in several studies. Data regarding the neuroprotective role of P4 in ischemic stroke are of great interest due to their potential clinical implications. In this review, we succinctly discuss the biosynthesis of P4 and distribution of P4 receptors (PRs) in the brain. We summarize our work on the general mechanisms of P4 mediated via the modulation of different PR and neurotransmitters. Finally, we describe the neuroprotective mechanisms of P4 in ischemic stroke models and related clinical prospects.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the international society for environmental toxicology and cancer
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29283333
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
LR  - 20171228
IS  - 2162-6537 (Electronic)
IS  - 0731-8898 (Linking)
VI  - 36
IP  - 3
DP  - 2017
TI  - Neurosteroids and Ischemic Stroke: Progesterone a Promising Agent in Reducing the
      Brain Injury in Ischemic Stroke.
PG  - 191-205
LID - 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017017156 [doi]
AB  - Progesterone (P4), a well-known neurosteroid, is produced by ovaries and placenta
      in females and by adrenal glands in both sexes. Progesterone is also synthesized 
      by central nervous system (CNS) tissues to perform various vital neurological
      functions in the brain. Apart from performing crucial reproductive functions, it 
      also plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis, regeneration, cognition, mood,
      inflammation, and myelination in the CNS. A substantial body of experimental
      evidence from animal models documents the neuroprotective role of P4 in various
      CNS injury models, including ischemic stroke. Extensive data have revealed that
      P4 elicits neuroprotection through multiple mechanisms and systems in an
      integrated manner to prevent neuronal and glial damage, thus reducing mortality
      and morbidity. Progesterone has been described as safe for use at the clinical
      level through different routes in several studies. Data regarding the
      neuroprotective role of P4 in ischemic stroke are of great interest due to their 
      potential clinical implications. In this review, we succinctly discuss the
      biosynthesis of P4 and distribution of P4 receptors (PRs) in the brain. We
      summarize our work on the general mechanisms of P4 mediated via the modulation of
      different PR and neurotransmitters. Finally, we describe the neuroprotective
      mechanisms of P4 in ischemic stroke models and related clinical prospects.
FAU - Andrabi, Syed Suhail
AU  - Andrabi SS
AD  - Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard
      University), New Delhi 110062, India.
FAU - Parvez, Suhel
AU  - Parvez S
AD  - Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard
      University), New Delhi 110062, India.
FAU - Tabassum, Heena
AU  - Tabassum H
AD  - Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard
      University), New Delhi 110062, India.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PL  - United States
TA  - J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol
JT  - Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of
      the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer
JID - 8501420
EDAT- 2017/12/29 06:00
MHDA- 2017/12/29 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/29 06:00
PHST- 2017/12/29 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/12/29 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2017/12/29 06:00 [medline]
AID - 1828aa871383557b,7b0fa639379d880e [pii]
AID - 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017017156 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2017;36(3):191-205. doi:
      10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017017156.