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Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I - Epidemiology.

Abstract <i>Streptococcus suis</i> (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, <i>S. suis</i> strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. <i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans. Some strains, mostly those belonging to serotype 2, are also pathogenic for pigs, as well as for other animals and humans. Meningitis is the primary disease syndrome caused by <i>S. suis</i>, both in pigs and in humans. It is estimated that meningitis accounted for 68.0% of all cases of human disease reported until the end of 2012, followed by septicaemia (including life-threatening condition described as 'streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome' - STSLS), arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. Hearing loss and/or ves tibular dysfunction are the most common sequelae after recovery from meningitis caused by <i>S. suis</i>, occurring in more than 50% of patients. In the last two decades, the number of reported human cases due to <i>S. suis</i> has dramatically increased, mostly due to epidemics recorded in China in 1998 and 2005, and the fulminant increase in morbidity in the countries of south-eastern Asia, mostly Vietnam and Thailand. Out of 1,642 cases of <i>S. suis</i> infections identified between 2002-2013 worldwide in humans, 90.2% occurred in Asia, 8.5% in Europe and 1.3% in other parts of the globe. The human disease has mostly a zoonotic and occupational origin and occurs in pig breeders, abattoir workers, butchers and workers of meat processing facilities, veterinarians and meat inspectors. Bacteria are transmitted to workers by close contact with pigs or pig products, usually through contamination of minor cuts or abrasions on skin of hands and/or arms, or by pig bite. A different epidemiologic situation occurs in the Southeast Asian countries where most people become infected by habitual consumption of raw or undercooked pork, blood and offal products in the form of traditional dishes. Prevention of <i>S. suis</i> infections in pigs includes vaccination, improvement in pig-raising conditions, disinfection and/or fumigation of animal houses, and isolation of sick animals at the outbreak of disease. Prevention of human infections comprises: protection of skin from pig bite or injury with sharp tools by people occupationally exposed to pigs and pig products, prompt disinfection and dressing of wounds and abrasions at work, protection of the respiratory tract by wearing appropriate masks or repirators, consulting a doctor in the case of febrile illness after exposure to pigs or pork meat, avoidance of occupations associated with exposure to pigs and pork by immunocompomised people, avoidance of consumption of raw pork or pig blood, adequate cooking of pork, and health education.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Streptococcus suis

carriage

disease

epidemiology

humans

pigs

prevention

treatment

Journal Title annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : aaem
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29284248
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180105
LR  - 20180105
IS  - 1898-2263 (Electronic)
IS  - 1232-1966 (Linking)
VI  - 24
IP  - 4
DP  - 2017 Dec 23
TI  - Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure 
      to pigs or pork products. Part I - Epidemiology.
PG  - 683-695
LID - 79813 [pii]
LID - 10.26444/aaem/79813 [doi]
AB  - &lt;i&gt;Streptococcus suis&lt;/i&gt; (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Balz &amp; Schleifer 1987) is a
      facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a
      polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, &lt;i&gt;S.
      suis&lt;/i&gt; strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. &lt;i&gt;Streptococcus
      suis&lt;/i&gt; is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal
      cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species
      occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans. Some strains,
      mostly those belonging to serotype 2, are also pathogenic for pigs, as well as
      for other animals and humans. Meningitis is the primary disease syndrome caused
      by &lt;i&gt;S. suis&lt;/i&gt;, both in pigs and in humans. It is estimated that meningitis
      accounted for 68.0% of all cases of human disease reported until the end of 2012,
      followed by septicaemia (including life-threatening condition described as
      'streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome' - STSLS), arthritis, endocarditis, and 
      endophthalmitis. Hearing loss and/or ves tibular dysfunction are the most common 
      sequelae after recovery from meningitis caused by &lt;i&gt;S. suis&lt;/i&gt;, occurring in
      more than 50% of patients. In the last two decades, the number of reported human 
      cases due to &lt;i&gt;S. suis&lt;/i&gt; has dramatically increased, mostly due to epidemics
      recorded in China in 1998 and 2005, and the fulminant increase in morbidity in
      the countries of south-eastern Asia, mostly Vietnam and Thailand. Out of 1,642
      cases of &lt;i&gt;S. suis&lt;/i&gt; infections identified between 2002-2013 worldwide in
      humans, 90.2% occurred in Asia, 8.5% in Europe and 1.3% in other parts of the
      globe. The human disease has mostly a zoonotic and occupational origin and occurs
      in pig breeders, abattoir workers, butchers and workers of meat processing
      facilities, veterinarians and meat inspectors. Bacteria are transmitted to
      workers by close contact with pigs or pig products, usually through contamination
      of minor cuts or abrasions on skin of hands and/or arms, or by pig bite. A
      different epidemiologic situation occurs in the Southeast Asian countries where
      most people become infected by habitual consumption of raw or undercooked pork,
      blood and offal products in the form of traditional dishes. Prevention of &lt;i&gt;S.
      suis&lt;/i&gt; infections in pigs includes vaccination, improvement in pig-raising
      conditions, disinfection and/or fumigation of animal houses, and isolation of
      sick animals at the outbreak of disease. Prevention of human infections
      comprises: protection of skin from pig bite or injury with sharp tools by people 
      occupationally exposed to pigs and pig products, prompt disinfection and dressing
      of wounds and abrasions at work, protection of the respiratory tract by wearing
      appropriate masks or repirators, consulting a doctor in the case of febrile
      illness after exposure to pigs or pork meat, avoidance of occupations associated 
      with exposure to pigs and pork by immunocompomised people, avoidance of
      consumption of raw pork or pig blood, adequate cooking of pork, and health
      education.
FAU - Dutkiewicz, Jacek
AU  - Dutkiewicz J
AD  - Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural
      Health, Lublin, Poland. [email protected]
FAU - Sroka, Jacek
AU  - Sroka J
AD  - Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural
      Health, Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Zajac, Violetta
AU  - Zajac V
AD  - Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural
      Health, Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Wasinski, Bernard
AU  - Wasinski B
AD  - Department of Hygiene of Food of Animal Origin, National Veterinary Research
      Institute, Pulawy, Poland.
FAU - Cisak, Ewa
AU  - Cisak E
AD  - Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural
      Health, Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Sawczyn, Anna
AU  - Sawczyn A
AD  - Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural
      Health, Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Kloc, Anna
AU  - Kloc A
AD  - Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural
      Health, Lublin, Poland.
FAU - Wojcik-Fatla, Angelina
AU  - Wojcik-Fatla A
AD  - Department of Biological Health Hazards and Parasitology, Institute of Rural
      Health, Lublin, Poland.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20171129
PL  - Poland
TA  - Ann Agric Environ Med
JT  - Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : AAEM
JID - 9500166
SB  - IM
MH  - Abattoirs
MH  - Animals
MH  - China
MH  - Humans
MH  - Meat Products/analysis/*microbiology
MH  - Occupational Exposure/*analysis
MH  - Streptococcal Infections/*epidemiology/microbiology/*veterinary
MH  - Streptococcus suis/genetics/isolation &amp; purification/*physiology
MH  - Swine
MH  - Swine Diseases/*epidemiology/microbiology
MH  - Zoonoses/epidemiology/microbiology
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Streptococcus suis
OT  - carriage
OT  - disease
OT  - epidemiology
OT  - humans
OT  - pigs
OT  - prevention
OT  - treatment
EDAT- 2017/12/30 06:00
MHDA- 2018/01/06 06:00
CRDT- 2017/12/30 06:00
PHST- 2017/12/30 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2017/12/30 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/01/06 06:00 [medline]
AID - 79813 [pii]
AID - 10.26444/aaem/79813 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017 Dec 23;24(4):683-695. doi: 10.26444/aaem/79813. Epub 
      2017 Nov 29.