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Enteroparasite and vivax malaria co-infection on the Brazil-French Guiana border: Epidemiological, haematological and immunological aspects.

Abstract Malaria-enteroparasitic co-infections are known for their endemicity. Although they are prevalent, little is known about their epidemiology and effect on the immune response. This study evaluated the effect of enteroparasite co-infections with malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in a border area between Brazil and French Guiana. The cross sectional study took place in Oiapoque, a municipality of Amapá, on the Amazon border. Malaria was diagnosed using thick blood smears, haemoglobin dosage by an automated method and coproparasitology by the Hoffman and Faust methods. The anti-PvMSP-119 IgG antibodies in the plasma were evaluated using ELISA and Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2), and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) cytokine counts were performed by flow cytometry. The participants were grouped into those that were monoinfected with vivax malaria (M), vivax malaria-enteroparasite co-infected (CI), monoinfected with enteroparasite (E) and endemic controls (EC), who were negative for both diseases. 441 individuals were included and grouped according to their infection status: [M 6.9% (30/441)], [Cl 26.5% (117/441)], [E 32.4% (143/441)] and [EC 34.2% (151/441)]. Males prevailed among the (M) 77% (23/30) and (CI) 60% (70/117) groups. There was a difference in haemoglobin levels among the different groups under study for [EC-E], [EC-Cl], [E-M] and [Cl-M], with (p < 0.01). Anaemia was expressed as a percentage between individuals [CI-EC (p < 0.05)]. In terms of parasitaemia, there were differences for the groups [CI-M (p < 0.05)]. Anti-PvMSP-119 antibodies were detected in 51.2% (226/441) of the population. The level of cytokines evaluation revealed a large variation in TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations in the co-infected group. In this study we did not observe any influence of coinfection on the acquisition of IgG antibodies against PvMSP119, as well as on the profile of the cytokines that characterize the Th1 and Th2 patterns. However, co-infection increased TNF-α and IL-10 levels.
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PMID- 29293589
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Data-Review
LR  - 20180102
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 13
IP  - 1
DP  - 2018
TI  - Enteroparasite and vivax malaria co-infection on the Brazil-French Guiana border:
      Epidemiological, haematological and immunological aspects.
PG  - e0189958
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189958 [doi]
AB  - Malaria-enteroparasitic co-infections are known for their endemicity. Although
      they are prevalent, little is known about their epidemiology and effect on the
      immune response. This study evaluated the effect of enteroparasite co-infections 
      with malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in a border area between Brazil and
      French Guiana. The cross sectional study took place in Oiapoque, a municipality
      of Amapa, on the Amazon border. Malaria was diagnosed using thick blood smears,
      haemoglobin dosage by an automated method and coproparasitology by the Hoffman
      and Faust methods. The anti-PvMSP-119 IgG antibodies in the plasma were evaluated
      using ELISA and Th1 (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2), and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5 and
      IL-10) cytokine counts were performed by flow cytometry. The participants were
      grouped into those that were monoinfected with vivax malaria (M), vivax
      malaria-enteroparasite co-infected (CI), monoinfected with enteroparasite (E) and
      endemic controls (EC), who were negative for both diseases. 441 individuals were 
      included and grouped according to their infection status: [M 6.9% (30/441)], [Cl 
      26.5% (117/441)], [E 32.4% (143/441)] and [EC 34.2% (151/441)]. Males prevailed
      among the (M) 77% (23/30) and (CI) 60% (70/117) groups. There was a difference in
      haemoglobin levels among the different groups under study for [EC-E], [EC-Cl],
      [E-M] and [Cl-M], with (p &lt; 0.01). Anaemia was expressed as a percentage between 
      individuals [CI-EC (p &lt; 0.05)]. In terms of parasitaemia, there were differences 
      for the groups [CI-M (p &lt; 0.05)]. Anti-PvMSP-119 antibodies were detected in
      51.2% (226/441) of the population. The level of cytokines evaluation revealed a
      large variation in TNF-alpha and IL-10 concentrations in the co-infected group.
      In this study we did not observe any influence of coinfection on the acquisition 
      of IgG antibodies against PvMSP119, as well as on the profile of the cytokines
      that characterize the Th1 and Th2 patterns. However, co-infection increased
      TNF-alpha and IL-10 levels.
FAU - Menezes, Rubens Alex de Oliveira
AU  - Menezes RAO
AUID- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0206-5372
AD  - Postgraduate Program in the Biology of Infectious and Parasitic Agents, Federal
      University of Para (UFPA), Belem, Para State, Brazil.
AD  - Laboratory of morphofunctional and parasitic studies with impact on health
      (LEMPIS), Federal University of Amapa (UNIFAP), Macapa, Amapa State, Brazil.
FAU - Gomes, Margarete do Socorro Mendonca
AU  - Gomes MDSM
AD  - Amapa State Secretary of Health (SESA)/Amapa Central Laboratory, Macapa, Amapa
      state, Brazil.
FAU - Mendes, Anapaula Martins
AU  - Mendes AM
AD  - UNIFAP/Oiapoque Binational Campus, Federal University of Amapa, Oiapoque, Amapa
      State, Brazil.
FAU - Couto, Alvaro Augusto Ribeiro D' Almeida
AU  - Couto AARA
AD  - Amapa State Secretary of Health (SESA)/Amapa Central Laboratory, Macapa, Amapa
      state, Brazil.
FAU - Nacher, Mathieu
AU  - Nacher M
AD  - Centre d'Investigation Clinique, CIC INSERM 1424, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, 
      Cayenne, French Guiana.
FAU - Pimenta, Tamirys Simao
AU  - Pimenta TS
AD  - Postgraduate Program in Neuroscience and Cell Biology, UFPA, Belem, Para State,
      Brazil.
AD  - Evandro Chagas Institute/Brazilian Secretariat of Health Surveillance
      (SVS)/Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS), Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil.
FAU - Sousa, Aline Collares Pinheiro de
AU  - Sousa ACP
AD  - Evandro Chagas Institute/Brazilian Secretariat of Health Surveillance
      (SVS)/Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS), Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil.
FAU - Baptista, Andrea Regina de Souza
AU  - Baptista ARS
AD  - Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.
FAU - Jesus, Maria Izabel de
AU  - Jesus MI
AD  - Evandro Chagas Institute/Brazilian Secretariat of Health Surveillance
      (SVS)/Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS), Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil.
FAU - Enk, Martin Johannes
AU  - Enk MJ
AD  - Evandro Chagas Institute/Brazilian Secretariat of Health Surveillance
      (SVS)/Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS), Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil.
FAU - Cunha, Maristela Gomes
AU  - Cunha MG
AD  - Postgraduate Program in the Biology of Infectious and Parasitic Agents, Federal
      University of Para (UFPA), Belem, Para State, Brazil.
AD  - Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, Federal University of Para (UFPA),
      Belem, Para State, Brazil.
FAU - Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas
AU  - Machado RLD
AD  - Postgraduate Program in the Biology of Infectious and Parasitic Agents, Federal
      University of Para (UFPA), Belem, Para State, Brazil.
AD  - Evandro Chagas Institute/Brazilian Secretariat of Health Surveillance
      (SVS)/Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS), Ananindeua, Para State, Brazil.
AD  - Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20180102
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
EDAT- 2018/01/03 06:00
MHDA- 2018/01/03 06:00
CRDT- 2018/01/03 06:00
PHST- 2017/08/31 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/12/05 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2018/01/03 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/01/03 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/01/03 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0189958 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-17-31834 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2018 Jan 2;13(1):e0189958. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189958.
      eCollection 2018.