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Serial Food Poisoning Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus-Contaminated Shredded Dried Laver Seaweed Provided at School Lunch, Tokyo, 2017.

Abstract In February 2017, four food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Tokyo, involving ten schools. Shredded dried laver seaweed processed by a single food manufacturer in December 2016 was provided in common for the school meals that caused all four outbreaks. Of 4,209 persons exposed, 1,193 (28.3%) had symptoms of gastroenteritis. Norovirus (NoV) GII was detected in 207 (78.1%) of 265 cases by real-time RT-PCR. Thirty-one shredded dried laver seaweed samples were examined and seven (22.6%) of them were positive for NoV GII. PCR fragments of NoV ORF1/2 junction region (302 bp) from seven shredded dried laver seaweed samples and 20 clinical samples derived from the four outbreaks were sequenced. All of them displayed complete homology, and the genotype was classified as GII.17. A nearly full-length sequence (7,420 bp) of NoV RNA derived from a case was obtained by next-generation sequencer analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the same cluster as Hu/GII/JP/2015/GII.P17_GII.17/Kawasaki308. Thus, our investigation elucidated that the causative agent of these four serial food poisoning outbreaks was NoV GII.17 and the infectious source was a single batch of shredded dried laver seaweed. The water activity of the shredded dried laver seaweed was found to be 0.119 to 0.129. It was epidemiologically clarified that NoV does not lose infectivity for about two months even in the dry state. We conclude that a large diffuse outbreak of food poisoning caused by NoV GII.17 contamination of shredded dried laver seaweed had occurred in Tokyo. Our elucidation of the causative agent indicated that the food poisoning outbreaks in multiple areas of Japan, including Tokyo, during January to February 2017 were caused by the same contaminated food.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Food Analysis

Lunch

Keywords

GII.17

food poisoning

nested real-time PCR

norovirus

school lunch

shredded dried laver seaweed

Journal Title shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. journal of the food hygienic society of japan
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29311445
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180123
LR  - 20180123
IS  - 1882-1006 (Electronic)
IS  - 0015-6426 (Linking)
VI  - 58
IP  - 6
DP  - 2017
TI  - [Serial Food Poisoning Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus-Contaminated Shredded Dried 
      Laver Seaweed Provided at School Lunch, Tokyo, 2017].
PG  - 260-267
LID - 10.3358/shokueishi.58.260 [doi]
AB  - In February 2017, four food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Tokyo, involving ten 
      schools. Shredded dried laver seaweed processed by a single food manufacturer in 
      December 2016 was provided in common for the school meals that caused all four
      outbreaks. Of 4,209 persons exposed, 1,193 (28.3%) had symptoms of
      gastroenteritis. Norovirus (NoV) GII was detected in 207 (78.1%) of 265 cases by 
      real-time RT-PCR. Thirty-one shredded dried laver seaweed samples were examined
      and seven (22.6%) of them were positive for NoV GII. PCR fragments of NoV ORF1/2 
      junction region (302 bp) from seven shredded dried laver seaweed samples and 20
      clinical samples derived from the four outbreaks were sequenced. All of them
      displayed complete homology, and the genotype was classified as GII.17. A nearly 
      full-length sequence (7,420 bp) of NoV RNA derived from a case was obtained by
      next-generation sequencer analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this 
      strain belongs to the same cluster as Hu/GII/JP/2015/GII.P17_GII.17/Kawasaki308. 
      Thus, our investigation elucidated that the causative agent of these four serial 
      food poisoning outbreaks was NoV GII.17 and the infectious source was a single
      batch of shredded dried laver seaweed. The water activity of the shredded dried
      laver seaweed was found to be 0.119 to 0.129. It was epidemiologically clarified 
      that NoV does not lose infectivity for about two months even in the dry state. We
      conclude that a large diffuse outbreak of food poisoning caused by NoV GII.17
      contamination of shredded dried laver seaweed had occurred in Tokyo. Our
      elucidation of the causative agent indicated that the food poisoning outbreaks in
      multiple areas of Japan, including Tokyo, during January to February 2017 were
      caused by the same contaminated food.
FAU - Somura, Yoshiko
AU  - Somura Y
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Kimoto, Kana
AU  - Kimoto K
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Oda, Mayuko
AU  - Oda M
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Okutsu, Yuta
AU  - Okutsu Y
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Kato, Rei
AU  - Kato R
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Suzuki, Yasunori
AU  - Suzuki Y
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Siki, Dai
AU  - Siki D
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Wholesale Market Sanitation Inspection Station.
FAU - Hirai, Akihiko
AU  - Hirai A
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Akiba, Tetsuya
AU  - Akiba T
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Shinkai, Takayuki
AU  - Shinkai T
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
FAU - Sadamasu, Kenji
AU  - Sadamasu K
AD  - Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health.
LA  - jpn
PT  - Journal Article
PL  - Japan
TA  - Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi
JT  - Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
JID - 0142214
RN  - 0 (Drug Combinations)
RN  - 0 (Quinolones)
RN  - 0 (RNA, Viral)
RN  - 0 (genovoya)
RN  - 99YXE507IL (Tenofovir)
RN  - G70B4ETF4S (Emtricitabine)
RN  - LW2E03M5PG (Cobicistat)
SB  - IM
MH  - Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology/*etiology/*virology
MH  - Cobicistat
MH  - Disease Outbreaks/*statistics & numerical data
MH  - Drug Combinations
MH  - Emtricitabine
MH  - *Food Analysis
MH  - Food Contamination/*analysis
MH  - Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology/*etiology/*virology
MH  - *Lunch
MH  - Norovirus/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification
MH  - Quinolones
MH  - RNA, Viral/isolation & purification
MH  - Schools/*statistics & numerical data
MH  - Seaweed/*virology
MH  - Tenofovir/analogs & derivatives
MH  - Time Factors
MH  - Tokyo/epidemiology
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - GII.17
OT  - food poisoning
OT  - nested real-time PCR
OT  - norovirus
OT  - school lunch
OT  - shredded dried laver seaweed
EDAT- 2018/01/10 06:00
MHDA- 2018/01/24 06:00
CRDT- 2018/01/10 06:00
PHST- 2018/01/10 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/01/10 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/01/24 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.3358/shokueishi.58.260 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2017;58(6):260-267. doi: 10.3358/shokueishi.58.260.