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Bionomics of Phlebotomus argentipes in villages in Bihar, India with insights into efficacy of IRS-based control measures.

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P. argentipes were neglected. We describe a large-scale field study, performed in 24 villages within two Bihari districts, during which P. argentipes were collected biweekly over 47-weeks, in cattle enclosures, houses, and outdoors in peri-domestic vegetation. The objectives of this study were to provide updated P. argentipes ecological field data, and determine if program-initiated IRS-treatment had led to noticeable differences in vector abundance.
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title plos neglected tropical diseases
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29324760
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180130
LR  - 20180130
IS  - 1935-2735 (Electronic)
IS  - 1935-2727 (Linking)
VI  - 12
IP  - 1
DP  - 2018 Jan
TI  - Bionomics of Phlebotomus argentipes in villages in Bihar, India with insights
      into efficacy of IRS-based control measures.
PG  - e0006168
LID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006168 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease.
      Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly,
      Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar
      consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner
      walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated
      success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the 
      number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P.
      argentipes were neglected. We describe a large-scale field study, performed in 24
      villages within two Bihari districts, during which P. argentipes were collected
      biweekly over 47-weeks, in cattle enclosures, houses, and outdoors in
      peri-domestic vegetation. The objectives of this study were to provide updated P.
      argentipes ecological field data, and determine if program-initiated
      IRS-treatment had led to noticeable differences in vector abundance. PRINCIPAL
      FINDINGS: P. argentipes (n = 126,901) relative abundance was greatest during the 
      summer months (June-August) when minimum temperatures were highest. P. argentipes
      were most frequently collected from cattle enclosures (~46% total; ~56% blood
      fed). Many sand flies were found to have taken blood from multiple sources, with 
      ~81% having blood fed on humans and ~60% blood feeding on bovines. Nonparametric 
      statistical tests were determined most appropriate for evaluating IRS-treatment. 
      Differences in P. argentipes abundance in houses, cattle enclosures and
      vegetation were detected between IRS-treated and untreated villages in only ~9%
      of evaluation periods occurring during the peak period of human-vector exposure
      (June-August) and in ~8% of the total observations. No significant differences
      were detected between the numbers of P. argentipes collected in vegetation close 
      to the experimental villages. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide
      updated data regarding P. argentipes seasonal abundance, spatial distribution,
      and host preferances, and suggest vector abundance has not significantly declined
      in IRS-treated villages. We suggest that IRS be supplemented with vector control 
      strategies targeting exophagic, exophilic P. argentipes, and that disease
      surveillance be accompanied by rigorous vector population monitoring.
FAU - Poche, David M
AU  - Poche DM
AUID- ORCID: 0000-0002-1873-5107
AD  - Department of Vector Ecology, Genesis Laboratories, Inc., Wellington, United
      States of America.
FAU - Garlapati, Rajesh B
AU  - Garlapati RB
AD  - Department of Entomology, Genesis Laboratories India Private Limited, Patna,
      India.
FAU - Mukherjee, Shanta
AU  - Mukherjee S
AD  - Department of Entomology, Genesis Laboratories India Private Limited, Patna,
      India.
FAU - Torres-Poche, Zaria
AU  - Torres-Poche Z
AD  - Department of Vector Ecology, Genesis Laboratories, Inc., Wellington, United
      States of America.
FAU - Hasker, Epco
AU  - Hasker E
AD  - Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
FAU - Rahman, Tahfizur
AU  - Rahman T
AD  - Department of Entomology, Genesis Laboratories India Private Limited, Patna,
      India.
FAU - Bharti, Aakanksha
AU  - Bharti A
AD  - Department of Entomology, Genesis Laboratories India Private Limited, Patna,
      India.
FAU - Tripathi, Vishnu P
AU  - Tripathi VP
AD  - Department of Entomology, Genesis Laboratories India Private Limited, Patna,
      India.
FAU - Prakash, Suman
AU  - Prakash S
AD  - Department of Entomology, Genesis Laboratories India Private Limited, Patna,
      India.
FAU - Chaubey, Rahul
AU  - Chaubey R
AD  - Department of Entomology, Genesis Laboratories India Private Limited, Patna,
      India.
FAU - Poche, Richard M
AU  - Poche RM
AD  - Department of Vector Ecology, Genesis Laboratories, Inc., Wellington, United
      States of America.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
DEP - 20180111
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis
JT  - PLoS neglected tropical diseases
JID - 101291488
RN  - 0 (Insecticides)
SB  - IM
MH  - Animals
MH  - Environment
MH  - Humans
MH  - India/epidemiology
MH  - Insect Control/*methods
MH  - Insect Vectors/*drug effects/parasitology
MH  - Insecticides/*pharmacology
MH  - Leishmania donovani
MH  - Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology/parasitology/*prevention &
      control/*transmission
MH  - Phlebotomus/*drug effects/parasitology
MH  - Seasons
PMC - PMC5764230
EDAT- 2018/01/13 06:00
MHDA- 2018/01/31 06:00
CRDT- 2018/01/12 06:00
PHST- 2017/08/31 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/12/15 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2018/01/12 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/01/13 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/01/31 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006168 [doi]
AID - PNTD-D-17-01396 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Jan 11;12(1):e0006168. doi:
      10.1371/journal.pntd.0006168. eCollection 2018 Jan.