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Immunocompetent host develops mild intestinal inflammation in acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, common zoonosis among vertebrates and high incidence worldwide. During the infection, the parasite needs to transpose the intestinal barrier to spread throughout the body, which may be a trigger for an inflammatory reaction. This work evaluated the inflammatory alterations of early T. gondii infection in peripheral blood cells, in the mesenteric microcirculation, and small intestinal tissue by measurement of MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity and NO (nitric oxide) level in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into control group (CG) that received saline orally and groups infected with 5,000 oocysts for 6 (G6), 12 (G12), 24 (G24), 48 (G48) and 72 hours (G72). Blood samples were collected for total and differential leukocyte count. Intravital microscopy was performed in the mesentery to evaluate rolling and adhesion of leukocytes. After euthanasia, 0.5cm of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for the determination of MPO activity, NO level and PCR to identify the parasite DNA and also the mesentery were collected to perform immunohistochemistry on frozen sections to quantify adhesion molecules ICAM-1, PECAM-1 and P-Selectin. The parasite DNA was identified in all infected groups and there was an increase in leukocytes in the peripheral blood and in expression of ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 in G6 and G12, however, the expression of P-selectin was reduced in G12. Leukocytes are in rolling process during the first 12 hours and they are adhered at 24 hours post-infection. The activity of MPO increased in the duodenum at 12 hours, and NO increased in the jejunum in G72 and ileum in G24, G48 and G72. Our study demonstrated that T. gondii initiates the infection precociously (at 6 hours) leading to a systemic activation of innate immune response resulting in mild inflammation in a less susceptible experimental model.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Immunocompetence

Keywords
Journal Title plos one
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29324806
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180129
LR  - 20180129
IS  - 1932-6203 (Electronic)
IS  - 1932-6203 (Linking)
VI  - 13
IP  - 1
DP  - 2018
TI  - Immunocompetent host develops mild intestinal inflammation in acute infection
      with Toxoplasma gondii.
PG  - e0190155
LID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0190155 [doi]
AB  - Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, common
      zoonosis among vertebrates and high incidence worldwide. During the infection,
      the parasite needs to transpose the intestinal barrier to spread throughout the
      body, which may be a trigger for an inflammatory reaction. This work evaluated
      the inflammatory alterations of early T. gondii infection in peripheral blood
      cells, in the mesenteric microcirculation, and small intestinal tissue by
      measurement of MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity and NO (nitric oxide) level in
      rats. Animals were randomly assigned into control group (CG) that received saline
      orally and groups infected with 5,000 oocysts for 6 (G6), 12 (G12), 24 (G24), 48 
      (G48) and 72 hours (G72). Blood samples were collected for total and differential
      leukocyte count. Intravital microscopy was performed in the mesentery to evaluate
      rolling and adhesion of leukocytes. After euthanasia, 0.5cm of the duodenum,
      jejunum and ileum were collected for the determination of MPO activity, NO level 
      and PCR to identify the parasite DNA and also the mesentery were collected to
      perform immunohistochemistry on frozen sections to quantify adhesion molecules
      ICAM-1, PECAM-1 and P-Selectin. The parasite DNA was identified in all infected
      groups and there was an increase in leukocytes in the peripheral blood and in
      expression of ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 in G6 and G12, however, the expression of
      P-selectin was reduced in G12. Leukocytes are in rolling process during the first
      12 hours and they are adhered at 24 hours post-infection. The activity of MPO
      increased in the duodenum at 12 hours, and NO increased in the jejunum in G72 and
      ileum in G24, G48 and G72. Our study demonstrated that T. gondii initiates the
      infection precociously (at 6 hours) leading to a systemic activation of innate
      immune response resulting in mild inflammation in a less susceptible experimental
      model.
FAU - Watanabe, Paulo da Silva
AU  - Watanabe PDS
AUID- ORCID: 0000-0002-5134-233X
AD  - Biosciences and Physiopathology Program, Universidade Estadual de Maringa,
      Maringa, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Trevizan, Aline Rosa
AU  - Trevizan AR
AD  - Biosciences and Physiopathology Program, Universidade Estadual de Maringa,
      Maringa, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides
AU  - Silva-Filho SE
AD  - Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate Program, Universidade Estadual de Maringa,
      Maringa, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Gois, Marcelo Biondaro
AU  - Gois MB
AD  - Biosciences and Physiopathology Program, Universidade Estadual de Maringa,
      Maringa, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Garcia, Joao Luiz
AU  - Garcia JL
AD  - Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura
AU  - Cuman RKN
AD  - Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate Program, Universidade Estadual de Maringa,
      Maringa, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina
AU  - Breithaupt-Faloppa AC
AD  - Heart Institute (InCor), LIM 11, Universidade de Sao Paulo-Medical School, Sao
      Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
FAU - Sant Ana, Debora de Mello Goncales
AU  - Sant Ana DMG
AD  - Biosciences and Physiopathology Program, Universidade Estadual de Maringa,
      Maringa, Parana, Brazil.
FAU - Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda de Alcantara
AU  - Nogueira de Melo GA
AD  - Biosciences and Physiopathology Program, Universidade Estadual de Maringa,
      Maringa, Parana, Brazil.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20180111
PL  - United States
TA  - PLoS One
JT  - PloS one
JID - 101285081
RN  - 126547-89-5 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1)
RN  - 31C4KY9ESH (Nitric Oxide)
RN  - EC 1.11.1.7 (Peroxidase)
SB  - IM
MH  - Acute Disease
MH  - Animals
MH  - *Immunocompetence
MH  - Inflammation/*pathology
MH  - Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
MH  - Intestines/*pathology
MH  - Nitric Oxide/metabolism
MH  - Peroxidase/metabolism
MH  - Rats
MH  - Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
MH  - Toxoplasma/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity
MH  - Toxoplasmosis, Animal/*pathology
PMC - PMC5764246
EDAT- 2018/01/13 06:00
MHDA- 2018/01/30 06:00
CRDT- 2018/01/12 06:00
PHST- 2017/06/28 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2017/12/08 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2018/01/12 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/01/13 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/01/30 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1371/journal.pone.0190155 [doi]
AID - PONE-D-17-24433 [pii]
PST - epublish
SO  - PLoS One. 2018 Jan 11;13(1):e0190155. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190155.
      eCollection 2018.