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Brain damage and neurological symptoms induced by T-2 toxin in rat brain.

Abstract T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed, and is also present in processed cereal products. The most common route of T-2 toxin exposure in humans is through dietary ingestion. The cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin include modifications to feeding behavior, nervous disorders, cardiovascular alterations, immunosuppression, and hemostatic derangements. However, to date, effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have rarely been reported. In the present study, female Wistar rat were given a single dose of T-2 toxin at 2 mg/kg b.w. and were sacrificed at one, three, and seven days post-exposure. Histopathological analysis and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were used to investigate injury to the brain and pituitary gland. Damage to the brain and pituitary at the molecular level was detected by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, and immunohistochemical assays. Liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate T-2 concentration in the brain. The results showed that pathological lesions were obvious in the brain at three days post-exposure; lesions in the pituitary were not observed until seven days post-exposure. Autophagy in the brain and apoptosis in the pituitary suggest that T-2 toxin may induce different acute reactions in different tissues. Importantly, low concentrations of T-2 toxin in the brain were observed in only one rat. Responsible for the above mentioned, we hypothesize that brain damage caused by this toxin may be due to the ability of the toxin to directly cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, given its widespread pollution in food, we should pay more attention to the neurotoxic effects of the T-2 toxin, which may have widespread implications for human health.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

T-2 toxin

brain

human health

hypophysis

neurotoxicity

Journal Title toxicology letters
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29413859
OWN - NLM
STAT- In-Process
LR  - 20180213
IS  - 1879-3169 (Electronic)
IS  - 0378-4274 (Linking)
VI  - 286
DP  - 2018 Apr
TI  - Brain damage and neurological symptoms induced by T-2 toxin in rat brain.
PG  - 96-107
LID - S0378-4274(18)30012-2 [pii]
LID - 10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.01.012 [doi]
AB  - T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, is a common contaminant in food and animal 
      feed, and is also present in processed cereal products. The most common route of 
      T-2 toxin exposure in humans is through dietary ingestion. The cytotoxic effects 
      of T-2 toxin include modifications to feeding behavior, nervous disorders,
      cardiovascular alterations, immunosuppression, and hemostatic derangements.
      However, to date, effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have rarely been
      reported. In the present study, female Wistar rat were given a single dose of T-2
      toxin at 2mg/kg b.w. and were sacrificed at one, three, and seven days
      post-exposure. Histopathological analysis and transmission electron microscope
      (TEM) observations were used to investigate injury to the brain and pituitary
      gland. Damage to the brain and pituitary at the molecular level was detected by
      real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, and
      immunohistochemical assays. Liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer/mass
      spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) was used to investigate T-2 concentration in the brain.
      The results showed that pathological lesions were obvious in the brain at three
      days post-exposure; lesions in the pituitary were not observed until seven days
      post-exposure. Autophagy in the brain and apoptosis in the pituitary suggest that
      T-2 toxin may induce different acute reactions in different tissues. Importantly,
      low concentrations of T-2 toxin in the brain were observed in only one rat.
      Responsible for the above mentioned, we hypothesize that brain damage caused by
      this toxin may be due to the ability of the toxin to directly cross the
      blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, given its widespread pollution in food, we 
      should pay more attention to the neurotoxic effects of the T-2 toxin, which may
      have widespread implications for human health.
CI  - Copyright (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
FAU - Guo, Pu
AU  - Guo P
AD  - National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key
      Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Wuhan, China.
FAU - Liu, Aimei
AU  - Liu A
AD  - National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key
      Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Wuhan, China.
FAU - Huang, Deyu
AU  - Huang D
AD  - National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key
      Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Wuhan, China.
FAU - Wu, Qinghua
AU  - Wu Q
AD  - College of Life Science, Institute of Biomedicine, Yangtze University, Jingzhou
      434025, China; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec 
      Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.
FAU - Fatima, Zainab
AU  - Fatima Z
AD  - MOA Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry
      Products, Wuhan, China.
FAU - Tao, Yanfei
AU  - Tao Y
AD  - Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety,
      Wuhan, China.
FAU - Cheng, Guyue
AU  - Cheng G
AD  - Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety,
      Wuhan, China.
FAU - Wang, Xu
AU  - Wang X
AD  - National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key
      Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Wuhan, China; MOA
      Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry
      Products, Wuhan, China. Electronic address: [email protected]
FAU - Yuan, Zonghui
AU  - Yuan Z
AD  - National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key
      Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Wuhan, China; MOA
      Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry
      Products, Wuhan, China; Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal
      Nutrition and Feed Safety, Wuhan, China.
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20180203
PL  - Netherlands
TA  - Toxicol Lett
JT  - Toxicology letters
JID - 7709027
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - T-2 toxin
OT  - brain
OT  - human health
OT  - hypophysis
OT  - neurotoxicity
EDAT- 2018/02/08 06:00
MHDA- 2018/02/08 06:00
CRDT- 2018/02/08 06:00
PHST- 2017/09/16 00:00 [received]
PHST- 2018/01/03 00:00 [revised]
PHST- 2018/01/12 00:00 [accepted]
PHST- 2018/02/08 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/02/08 06:00 [medline]
PHST- 2018/02/08 06:00 [entrez]
AID - S0378-4274(18)30012-2 [pii]
AID - 10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.01.012 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Toxicol Lett. 2018 Apr;286:96-107. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.01.012. Epub 2018
      Feb 3.