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Outpatient Talc Administration by Indwelling Pleural Catheter for Malignant Effusion.

Abstract Malignant pleural effusion affects more than 750,000 persons each year across Europe and the United States. Pleurodesis with the administration of talc in hospitalized patients is the most common treatment, but indwelling pleural catheters placed for drainage offer an ambulatory alternative. We examined whether talc administered through an indwelling pleural catheter was more effective at inducing pleurodesis than the use of an indwelling pleural catheter alone.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords
Journal Title the new england journal of medicine
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29617585
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180412
LR  - 20180412
IS  - 1533-4406 (Electronic)
IS  - 0028-4793 (Linking)
VI  - 378
IP  - 14
DP  - 2018 Apr 5
TI  - Outpatient Talc Administration by Indwelling Pleural Catheter for Malignant
      Effusion.
PG  - 1313-1322
LID - 10.1056/NEJMoa1716883 [doi]
AB  - BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural effusion affects more than 750,000 persons each
      year across Europe and the United States. Pleurodesis with the administration of 
      talc in hospitalized patients is the most common treatment, but indwelling
      pleural catheters placed for drainage offer an ambulatory alternative. We
      examined whether talc administered through an indwelling pleural catheter was
      more effective at inducing pleurodesis than the use of an indwelling pleural
      catheter alone. METHODS: Over a period of 4 years, we recruited patients with
      malignant pleural effusion at 18 centers in the United Kingdom. After the
      insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter, patients underwent drainage
      regularly on an outpatient basis. If there was no evidence of substantial lung
      entrapment (nonexpandable lung, in which lung expansion and pleural apposition
      are not possible because of visceral fibrosis or bronchial obstruction) at 10
      days, patients were randomly assigned to receive either 4 g of talc slurry or
      placebo through the indwelling pleural catheter on an outpatient basis. Talc or
      placebo was administered on a single-blind basis. Follow-up lasted for 70 days.
      The primary outcome was successful pleurodesis at day 35 after randomization.
      RESULTS: The target of 154 patients undergoing randomization was reached after
      584 patients were approached. At day 35, a total of 30 of 69 patients (43%) in
      the talc group had successful pleurodesis, as compared with 16 of 70 (23%) in the
      placebo group (hazard ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 3.92;
      P=0.008). No significant between-group differences in effusion size and
      complexity, number of inpatient days, mortality, or number of adverse events were
      identified. No significant excess of blockages of the indwelling pleural catheter
      was noted in the talc group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients without substantial lung
      entrapment, the outpatient administration of talc through an indwelling pleural
      catheter for the treatment of malignant pleural effusion resulted in a
      significantly higher chance of pleurodesis at 35 days than an indwelling catheter
      alone, with no deleterious effects. (Funded by Becton Dickinson; EudraCT number, 
      2012-000599-40 .).
FAU - Bhatnagar, Rahul
AU  - Bhatnagar R
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Keenan, Emma K
AU  - Keenan EK
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Morley, Anna J
AU  - Morley AJ
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Kahan, Brennan C
AU  - Kahan BC
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Stanton, Andrew E
AU  - Stanton AE
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Haris, Mohammed
AU  - Haris M
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Harrison, Richard N
AU  - Harrison RN
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Mustafa, Rehan A
AU  - Mustafa RA
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Bishop, Lesley J
AU  - Bishop LJ
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Ahmed, Liju
AU  - Ahmed L
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - West, Alex
AU  - West A
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Holme, Jayne
AU  - Holme J
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Evison, Matthew
AU  - Evison M
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Munavvar, Mohammed
AU  - Munavvar M
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Sivasothy, Pasupathy
AU  - Sivasothy P
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Herre, Jurgen
AU  - Herre J
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Cooper, David
AU  - Cooper D
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Roberts, Mark
AU  - Roberts M
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Guhan, Anur
AU  - Guhan A
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Hooper, Clare
AU  - Hooper C
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Walters, James
AU  - Walters J
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Saba, Tarek S
AU  - Saba TS
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Chakrabarti, Biswajit
AU  - Chakrabarti B
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Gunatilake, Samal
AU  - Gunatilake S
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Psallidas, Ioannis
AU  - Psallidas I
AUID- ORCID: 0000-0001-7284-0111
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Walker, Steven P
AU  - Walker SP
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Bibby, Anna C
AU  - Bibby AC
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Smith, Sarah
AU  - Smith S
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Stadon, Louise J
AU  - Stadon LJ
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Zahan-Evans, Natalie J
AU  - Zahan-Evans NJ
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Lee, Y C Gary
AU  - Lee YCG
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Harvey, John E
AU  - Harvey JE
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Rahman, Najib M
AU  - Rahman NM
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Miller, Robert F
AU  - Miller RF
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
FAU - Maskell, Nick A
AU  - Maskell NA
AD  - From the Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol (R.B., S.P.W., A.C.B., 
      N.A.M.), and North Bristol NHS Trust (R.B., E.K.K., A.J.M., S.P.W., A.C.B., S.S.,
      L.J.S., N.J.Z.-E., J.E.H., N.A.M.), Bristol, the Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, 
      Queen Mary University of London (B.C.K.), Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation
      Trust (L.A., A.W.), King's College School of Medicine, King's College University 
      (L.A.), and the Institute for Global Health, University College London (R.F.M.), 
      London, Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Swindon (A.E.S.),
      University Hospital of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent (M.H.), the
      School of Medicine, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme (M.H.), North Tees and
      Hartlepool NHS Foundation Trust, Stockton-on-Tees (R.N.H.), South Tees Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough (R.A.M.), Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust,
      Portsmouth (L.J.B.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (J.
      Holme, M.E.), Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Preston (M.M.),
      Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge (P.S., J. Herre), 
      Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, North Shields (D.C.), Sherwood
      Forest Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield (M.R.), NHS Ayrshire
      and Arran, Ayr (A.G.), Worcester Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Worcester (C.H.),
      Royal United Hospitals Bath NHS Foundation Trust, Bath (J.W.), Blackpool Teaching
      Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool (T.S.S.), Aintree University Hospitals 
      NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (B.C.), Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
      Winchester (S.G.), and the Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, University of Oxford
      (I.P., N.M.R.), the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (I.P.,
      N.M.R.), and the Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (N.M.R.), Oxford - all in
      the United Kingdom; and the Institute for Respiratory Health, University of
      Western Australia, and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia
      (Y.C.G.L.).
LA  - eng
SI  - EudraCT/2012-000599-40
PT  - Comparative Study
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Randomized Controlled Trial
PT  - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PL  - United States
TA  - N Engl J Med
JT  - The New England journal of medicine
JID - 0255562
RN  - 14807-96-6 (Talc)
SB  - AIM
SB  - IM
MH  - Aged
MH  - Ambulatory Care
MH  - Catheters, Indwelling
MH  - Female
MH  - Humans
MH  - Male
MH  - Middle Aged
MH  - Pleural Effusion, Malignant/mortality/*therapy
MH  - Pleurodesis/adverse effects/*methods
MH  - Quality of Life
MH  - Single-Blind Method
MH  - Survival Analysis
MH  - Talc/*administration & dosage
EDAT- 2018/04/05 06:00
MHDA- 2018/04/13 06:00
CRDT- 2018/04/05 06:00
PHST- 2018/04/05 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/04/05 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/04/13 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.1056/NEJMoa1716883 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - N Engl J Med. 2018 Apr 5;378(14):1313-1322. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1716883.