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Evaluation and Management of Dehydration in Children.

Abstract The article discusses the evaluation of dehydration in children and reviews the literature on physical findings of dehydration. Pediatric dehydration is a common problem in emergency departments and wide practice variation in treatment exists. Dehydration can be treated with oral, nasogastric, subcutaneous, or intravenous fluids. Although oral rehydration is underutilized in the United States, most children with dehydration can be successfully rehydrated via the oral route. Selection of oral rehydration solution and techniques for successful oral rehydration are presented. Appropriate selection and rate of administration of intravenous fluids are also discussed for isonatremic, hyponatremic, and hypernatremic dehydration.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms
Keywords

Dehydration

Fluid bolus

Hypernatremia

Hyponatremia

Intravenous fluid

Oral rehydration

Subcutaneous rehydration

Journal Title emergency medicine clinics of north america
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29622321
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180416
LR  - 20180416
IS  - 1558-0539 (Electronic)
IS  - 0733-8627 (Linking)
VI  - 36
IP  - 2
DP  - 2018 May
TI  - Evaluation and Management of Dehydration in Children.
PG  - 259-273
LID - S0733-8627(17)30139-6 [pii]
LID - 10.1016/j.emc.2017.12.004 [doi]
AB  - The article discusses the evaluation of dehydration in children and reviews the
      literature on physical findings of dehydration. Pediatric dehydration is a common
      problem in emergency departments and wide practice variation in treatment exists.
      Dehydration can be treated with oral, nasogastric, subcutaneous, or intravenous
      fluids. Although oral rehydration is underutilized in the United States, most
      children with dehydration can be successfully rehydrated via the oral route.
      Selection of oral rehydration solution and techniques for successful oral
      rehydration are presented. Appropriate selection and rate of administration of
      intravenous fluids are also discussed for isonatremic, hyponatremic, and
      hypernatremic dehydration.
CI  - Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FAU - Santillanes, Genevieve
AU  - Santillanes G
AD  - Department of Emergency Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern
      California, 1200 North State Street, GH Room 1011, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
FAU - Rose, Emily
AU  - Rose E
AD  - Department of Emergency Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern
      California, 1200 North State Street, GH Room 1011, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
      Electronic address: [email protected]
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
PT  - Review
DEP - 20180210
PL  - United States
TA  - Emerg Med Clin North Am
JT  - Emergency medicine clinics of North America
JID - 8219565
RN  - 0 (Isotonic Solutions)
SB  - IM
MH  - Administration, Intravenous
MH  - Administration, Oral
MH  - Child
MH  - Dehydration/diagnosis/*therapy
MH  - Fluid Therapy/*methods
MH  - Humans
MH  - Hypokalemia/prevention & control
MH  - Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage
MH  - Pediatric Emergency Medicine/*methods
OTO - NOTNLM
OT  - Dehydration
OT  - Fluid bolus
OT  - Hypernatremia
OT  - Hyponatremia
OT  - Intravenous fluid
OT  - Oral rehydration
OT  - Subcutaneous rehydration
EDAT- 2018/04/07 06:00
MHDA- 2018/04/17 06:00
CRDT- 2018/04/07 06:00
PHST- 2018/04/07 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/04/07 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/04/17 06:00 [medline]
AID - S0733-8627(17)30139-6 [pii]
AID - 10.1016/j.emc.2017.12.004 [doi]
PST - ppublish
SO  - Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2018 May;36(2):259-273. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2017.12.004. 
      Epub 2018 Feb 10.