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Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2016-2017.

Abstract Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2). AFP surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance for polioviruses in sewage from selected locations. Genomic sequencing of isolated polioviruses enables the mapping of transmission by time and place, assessment of potential gaps in surveillance, and identification of the emergence of VDPVs (3). This report presents poliovirus surveillance data from 2016-2017, with particular focus on six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and 20 countries in the African Region (AFR) that reported WPV or circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) during 2011-2017. Included in the 20 AFR countries are the three most affected by the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), even though only one (Guinea) reported WPV or cVDPVs during the surveillance period. During 2017, a total of 14 (70%) of the 20 AFR countries and five (83%) of the six EMR countries met both surveillance quality indicators at the national level; however, provincial-level variation was seen. Surveillance strengthening activities are needed in specific countries of these regions to provide evidence supporting ultimate certification of the interruption of poliovirus circulation.
PMID
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Authors

Mayor MeshTerms

Disease Eradication

Population Surveillance

Keywords
Journal Title mmwr. morbidity and mortality weekly report
Publication Year Start




PMID- 29649187
OWN - NLM
STAT- MEDLINE
DCOM- 20180413
LR  - 20180418
IS  - 1545-861X (Electronic)
IS  - 0149-2195 (Linking)
VI  - 67
IP  - 14
DP  - 2018 Apr 13
TI  - Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2016-2017.
PG  - 418-423
LID - 10.15585/mmwr.mm6714a3 [doi]
AB  - Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health
      Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification.
      Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern 
      Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted
      transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus 
      transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children
      aged &lt;15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for
      detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited
      laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2). AFP
      surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance for polioviruses in
      sewage from selected locations. Genomic sequencing of isolated polioviruses
      enables the mapping of transmission by time and place, assessment of potential
      gaps in surveillance, and identification of the emergence of VDPVs (3). This
      report presents poliovirus surveillance data from 2016-2017, with particular
      focus on six countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and 20 countries
      in the African Region (AFR) that reported WPV or circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs)
      during 2011-2017. Included in the 20 AFR countries are the three most affected by
      the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra
      Leone), even though only one (Guinea) reported WPV or cVDPVs during the
      surveillance period. During 2017, a total of 14 (70%) of the 20 AFR countries and
      five (83%) of the six EMR countries met both surveillance quality indicators at
      the national level; however, provincial-level variation was seen. Surveillance
      strengthening activities are needed in specific countries of these regions to
      provide evidence supporting ultimate certification of the interruption of
      poliovirus circulation.
FAU - Gardner, Tracie J
AU  - Gardner TJ
FAU - Diop, Ousmane M
AU  - Diop OM
FAU - Jorba, Jaume
AU  - Jorba J
FAU - Chavan, Smita
AU  - Chavan S
FAU - Ahmed, Jamal
AU  - Ahmed J
FAU - Anand, Abhijeet
AU  - Anand A
LA  - eng
PT  - Journal Article
DEP - 20180413
PL  - United States
TA  - MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
JT  - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
JID - 7802429
SB  - IM
MH  - *Disease Eradication
MH  - Environmental Monitoring
MH  - Global Health/*statistics &amp; numerical data
MH  - Humans
MH  - Laboratories
MH  - Paralysis/epidemiology
MH  - Poliomyelitis/epidemiology/*prevention &amp; control
MH  - Poliovirus/isolation &amp; purification
MH  - *Population Surveillance
PMC - PMC5898223
COIS- No conflicts of interest were reported.
EDAT- 2018/04/13 06:00
MHDA- 2018/04/14 06:00
CRDT- 2018/04/13 06:00
PHST- 2018/04/13 06:00 [entrez]
PHST- 2018/04/13 06:00 [pubmed]
PHST- 2018/04/14 06:00 [medline]
AID - 10.15585/mmwr.mm6714a3 [doi]
PST - epublish
SO  - MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Apr 13;67(14):418-423. doi:
      10.15585/mmwr.mm6714a3.